База учебников, документов и методических разработок

Воспользуйтесь поиском и введите свой вопрос в форме ниже!

Английский язык

Английский язык
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Наименование разделов
1. Введение
2. Образовательный маршрут
3. Содержание дисциплины
4. Контроль и оценка результатов освоения учебной дисциплины
6. Информационное обеспечение дисциплины


УВАЖАЕМЫЙ СТУДЕНТ!

Учебно-методический комплекс по дисциплине (далее УМКД) Иностранный язык (английский) создан Вам в помощь для работы на занятиях, при выполнении домашнего задания и подготовки к текущему и итоговому контролю по дисциплине. УМКД включает теоретический блок, перечень практических занятий и/или лабораторных работ, задания по самостоятельному изучению тем дисциплины, вопросы для самоконтроля, перечень точек рубежного контроля, а также вопросы и задания по промежуточной аттестации (при наличии экзамена).
Приступая к изучению новой учебной дисциплины, Вы должны внимательно изучить список рекомендованной основной и вспомогательной литературы. Из всего массива рекомендованной литературы следует опираться на литературу, указанную как основную.
По каждой теме в УМК перечислены основные понятия и термины, вопросы, необходимые для изучения (план изучения темы), а также краткая информация по каждому вопросу из подлежащих изучению. Наличие тезисной информации по теме позволит Вам вспомнить ключевые моменты, рассмотренные преподавателем на занятии.
Основные понятия курса приведены в глоссарии.
После изучения теоретического блока приведен перечень практических работ, выполнение которых обязательно. Наличие положительной оценки по практическим и/или лабораторным работам необходимо для получения зачета по дисциплине и/или допуска к экзамену, поэтому, в случае отсутствия на уроке по уважительной или неуважительной причине, Вам потребуется найти время и выполнить пропущенную работу.
В процессе изучения дисциплины предусмотрена самостоятельная внеаудиторная работа, включающая выполнение рефератов, написание сочинений, выполнение домашней работы по грамматике, заучивание монологических высказываний, составление словаря.
Содержание рубежного контроля (точек рубежного контроля) составлено на основе вопросов самоконтроля, приведенных по каждой теме. По итогам изучения дисциплины проводится дифференцированный зачет.

Дифференцированный зачет сдается по билетам либо в тестовом варианте, вопросы к которому приведены в конце УМКД.
В результате освоения дисциплины Вы должны уметь:
• общаться (устно и письменно) на иностранном языке на профессиональные и повседневные темы;
• переводить (со словарем) иностранные тексты профессиональной направленности;
• самостоятельно совершенствовать устную и письменную речь, пополнять словарный запас.
В результате освоения дисциплины Вы должны знать:
• лексический (1200-1400 лексических единиц) и грамматический минимум, необходимый для чтения и перевода (со словарем) иностранных текстов профессиональной направленности.

В результате освоения дисциплины у Вас должны формироваться общие компетенции (ОК):
Техник должен обладать общими компетенциями, включающими в себя способность:
ОК 1. Понимать сущность и социальную значимость своей будущей профессии, проявлять к ней устойчивый интерес.
ОК 2. Организовывать собственную деятельность, определять методы решения профессиональных задач, оценивать их эффективность и качество.
ОК 3. Оценивать риски и принимать решения в нестандартных ситуациях.
ОК 4. Осуществлять поиск, анализ и оценку информации, необходимой для постановки и решения профессиональных задач, профессионального и личностного развития.
ОК 5. Использовать информационно-коммуникационные технологии для совершенствования профессиональной деятельности.
ОК 6. Работать в коллективе и команде, взаимодействовать с руководством, коллегами и социальными партнерами.
ОК 7. Ставить цели, мотивировать деятельность обучающихся, организовывать и контролировать их работу с принятием на себя ответственности за качество образовательного процесса.
ОК 8. Самостоятельно определять задачи профессионального и личностного развития, заниматься самообразованием, осознанно планировать повышение квалификации.
ОК 9. Осуществлять профессиональную деятельность в условиях обновления ее целей, содержания, смены технологий.
ОК 10. Осуществлять профилактику травматизма, обеспечивать охрану жизни и здоровья обучающихся.
ОК 11. Строить профессиональную деятельность с соблюдением правовых норм, ее регулирующих.
ПК 1.1. Определять цели и задачи, планировать занятия.
ПК 1.3. Проводить лабораторно-практические занятия в аудиториях, учебно-производственных мастерских и в организациях.
ПК 1.4. Организовывать все виды практики обучающихся в учебно-производственных мастерских и на производстве.
ПК 2.2. Определять цели и задачи, планировать деятельность по педагогическому сопровождению группы обучающихся.
ПК 2.3. Организовывать различные виды внеурочной деятельности и общения обучающихся.
ПК 2.4. Осуществлять педагогическую поддержку формирования и реализации обучающимися индивидуальных образовательных программ.
ПК 3.2. Систематизировать и оценивать педагогический опыт и образовательные технологии в области среднего профессионального образования и профессионального обучения на основе изучения профессиональной литературы, самоанализа и анализа деятельности других педагогов.
Учебный курс дисциплины (модуля) состоит из фиксированного в учебном плане количества теоретических и практических часов, часов самостоятельной работы студентов, а также итоговых (семестровых) форм контроля.

Оценка по «пятибалльной» системе Уровень освоения по ФГОС

1 2 (неудовлетворительно)
2 3 (удовлетворительно) ознакомительный
3 4 (хорошо) продуктивный
4 5 (отлично) репродуктивный

Внимание! Если в ходе изучения дисциплины у Вас возникают трудности, то Вы всегда можете прийти на дополнительные занятия к преподавателю, которые проводятся согласно графику. Время проведения консультаций Вы сможете узнать у преподавателя, а также познакомиться с графиком их проведения, размещенном на двери кабинета преподавателя.

ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНЫЙ МАРШРУТ ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ

Вид учебной работы Объем часов
отрасль СЭЗиС ХКМиУ
Максимальная учебная нагрузка (всего) 283 262
Обязательная аудиторная учебная нагрузка (всего) 242 242
в том числе:
лабораторные работы
практические занятия 242 185
контрольные работы
курсовая работа
Самостоятельная работа обучающегося (всего) 41 20

Желаем Вам удачи!

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ

Раздел 1

Тема 1.1 About Myself

First of all let me introduce myself. My name is Sergey. I’m seventeen years old. I’m at 11-th grade. There are two more kids in the family besides — my elder brother Oleg and my younger sister Olga. Oleg is twenty-one, he attends a University, he will be a dentist. Olga is only twelve, she is a schoolgirl. I forgot to mention one more member of our family. It’s our favourite poodle Tim.
My parents are not old at all. My Mum is forty, she works for newspaper. My Dad is forty-four, he is an engineer in computers. My parents love their jobs very much.
I’m doing quite well at school. My parents are proud of my marks. I go in for sports. I play basket-ball. In summer time I like yachting and windsurfing. I take part in different basket-ball competitions. In a year I shall finish my school and I have to decide what occupation to choose I have been studying English for seven years. I want to be a military interpreter. My grandparents are already retired. They like gardening and spend all their time growing tomatoes, potatoes, onions, strawberries, raspberries.

Vocabulary:
to introduce — представлять
let me introduce myself — разрешите представиться
residential — жилой
residential areas — жилые районы
grade — класс в школе
to attend university — ходить в университет
kid — ребенок
favourite — любимец, любимый
poodle — пудель
to forget — забывать
job — работа
proud — гордый
to be proud of smth — гордиться чем-то
to go in for sports — увлекаться спортом
occupation — занятие, род занятий, профессия
military — военный
interpreter — переводчик
to retire — быть на пенсии

Грамматика:
Спряжение глагола to be (быть)
в Present Simple Tense (Present Indefinite Tense)
I am He is She is It is We are You are They are
Ami? Is he? Is she? Is it? Are we? Are you? Are they?
I am not He is not She is not It is not We are not You are not They are not
Yes, I am Yes, he is Yes, she is Yes, it is Yes, we are Yes, you are Yes, they are
No, I am not No, he isn’t No, she isn’t No, it isn’t No, we aren’t No, you aren’t No, they aren’t
Вставьте глагол to be в Present Simple.
1. I … a pupil. 2. My father … not a teacher, he … a scientist. 3. … your aunt a doctor? — Yes, she … . 4. … they at home? — — No, they … not at borne, they … at work. 5. My brother … a worker. He … at work. 6. … you an engineer? — — Yes, I…. 7. … your sister a typist? No, she … not a typist, she … a student. 8. … your brother at school? — — Yes, he … . 9. … your sister at school? — No, she … not at school. 10. My … sister … at home. 11. … this your watch? • Yes, it … . 12. She … an actress. 13. This … my bag. 14. My uncle … an office-worker. 15. He … at work. 16. Helen … a painter. She has some fine pictures. They … on the walls. She has much paper. It … on the shelf. The shelf … brown. It … on the wall. Helen has a brother. He … a student. He has a family. His family … not in St. Petersburg, it … in Moscow.
To Be
Спряжение глагола to be (быть)
в Past Simple Tense
(Past Indefinite Tense)
I was I was not
He was He was not
She was She was not
It was It was not
We were We were not
You were You were not
They were They were not

Was I? Yes, I was No, I wasn’t
Was he? Yes, he was No, he wasn’t
Was she? Yes, she was No, she wasn’t
Was it? Yes, it was No, it wasn’t
Were we? Yes, we were No, we weren’t
Were you?
Were they? Yes, you were
Yes, they were No, you weren’t
No, they weren’t

Спряжение глагола to be (быть) в Future Simple Tense (Future Indefinite Tense)
I shall be
He will be
She will be
It will be I shall not be
He will not be
She will not be
It will not be
We shall be
You will be
They will be We shall not be
You will not be
They will not be
Shall I be?
Will he be?
Will she be?
Will it be? Yes, I shall
Yes, he will
Yes, she will
Yes, it will No, I shan’t
No, he won’t
No, she won’t
No, it won’t
Shall we be?
Will you be?
Will they be? Yes, we shall
Yes, you will
Yes, they will No, we shan’t
No, you won’t
No, they won’t

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения:

Вставьте глагол to be в Present, Past или Future Simple.
1. My father … a teacher. 2. He … a pupil twen¬ty years ago. 3. I… a doctor when I grow up. 4. My sister … not … at home tomorrow. 5. She … at school tomorrow. 6. … you … at home tomorrow? 7… your father at work yesterday? 8. My sister … ill last week. 9. She … not ill now. 10. Yesterday we… at the theatre. 11. Where … your mother now? — She … in the kitchen. 12. Where … you yesterday? — I … at the cinema. 13. When I come home tomorrow, all my family … at home. 14. … your little sister in bed now? — Yes, she … 15. … you… at school tomorrow? — Yes I … . 16. When my granny… young, she … an actress. 17. My friend K. … in Moscow now. 18. He … in St. Petersburg to¬morrow. 19. Where … your books now? — They … in my bag.
Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to be в Present, Past или Future Simple.
1. Мой брат сейчас в школе. 2. Мой брат был вчера в кино. 3. Мой брат будет завтра дома. 4. Ты будешь дома завтра? 5. Она была вчера в парке? 6 Он сейчас во дворе? 7. Где папа? 8. Где выбыли вчера? 9. Где он будет завтра? 10. Мои книги были на столе. Где они сейчас? 11. Моя мама вчера не была на работе. Она была дома. 12, Мой друг не в парке. Он в школе. 13. Завтра в три часа Коля и Миша будут во дворе. 14. Мы не были на юге прошлым летом. Мы были в Москве. 15. Завтра мой дедушка будет в дерев¬не. 16. Когда твоя сестра будет дома? 17. Ты бу¬дешь летчиком? — Нет, я буду моряком. 18. Моя сестра была студенткой в прошлом году, a сейчас она врач. — Ты тоже будешь врачом? — Нет, я не буду врачом. Я буду инженером.
About myself (2)

It is both pleasant and a bit difficult to speak about myself. It is pleasant because every person enjoys speaking about his or her interests, likes or dislikes. But at the same time it is difficult because to study a person, especially yourself, it is a great journey, not a little walk.
Speaking about my character I’d like first of all to define what character is. These are some qualities that make a person different from others. People often say about me that I am not like others. I don’t think that I am something special. When candles are out all cats are grey. But of course if you come closer and turn on the light you can see that some features are typical to me.
But to cut the long story short I think I am a good humoured, very responsible, hard working and emotional person. I like creativity and appreciate this trait in others. I don’t like to he and I feel when others do. I try not to be late and I hate when others don’t come on time. I prefer to associate with clever and polite people. It is very annoying when somebody whom I trust turns out to be unreliable. But I try to treat other people so as I want them to treat me. I see the man whom I am looking for also as a person with a strong and sound body and mind. The person, who is interesting to talk to, whom I can trust and rely on.
Vocabulary
at the same time — в то же время, одновременно
to define [di’fam] — определять, давать определение
When candles are out all cats are grey — в темноте все кошки серые
feature — особенность, характерная черта
to cut the long story short — короче говоря
responsible — ответственный, дисциплинированный; надежный
creativity — творчество
to appreciate [∂’prii∫ieit] — (высоко) ценить
to lie [lai] — лгать, обманывать
to associate with [a’saufieit] — общаться с
annoying — раздражающий; досадный; надоедливый
to trust — верить, доверять(ся), полагаться (на кого-л.)
to treat — обращаться, обходиться, вести себя по отношению к кому-л.; относиться
to rely on — полагаться, надеяться; доверять, быть уверенным
psychology [sai’kol∂dpi] — психология
to deal with — иметь дело с кем-л.
to adore [∂’do:] — обожать
Questions
1. Why is it both pleasant and a bit difficult to speak about oneself?
2. What can you tell about your character?
3. What personal qualities do you appreciate?
4. What are you fond of doing?
5. What do you hate that other people do?
6. What is it annoying to you about other people?
7. How do you try to treat other people?
8. What are your interests and hobbies?
9. What do you adore doing?
Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Составьте и выучите краткое описание своего друга (12-15 предл.).

Тема 1.2 About My Family

My family is not very big, just a typical family: Dad, Mom, me, my brother and sister and our cat. My Mummy is forty-one, she is a teacher of Spanish at the University. She is a born teacher. She has teaching abilities. My Dad is forty-two, he is a professional painter, he works for a design company. My parents both like their work very much.
My elder sister Natasha is nineteen, she goes to the University, she wants to be a teacher of history. She is fond of reading books on history and fiction. My younger brother Igor is only six years old, he goes to the kindergarten. He is very funny, I like to spend my free time teaching him something. Igor likes to play with our cat.
My grandparents are retired. They like gardening. They spend a lot of their time in the garden. They grow vegetables and fruits. We enjoy having fresh vegetables and green on our dinner table. I love my family very much. We always help each other. Everyone in my family is my best friend.
Vocabulary:
typical- типичный
Spanish — испанский
ability — способность
painter — художник
fiction — художественная литература
funny — смешной
to spend — проводить
to grow — выращивать
to enjoy — наслаждаться
green — зелень
to be fond of smth. — нравиться кому-либо
Questions:
1. How many are there in the family?
2. Do you have a brother or a sister?
3. Where do your parents work?
4. Do your parents understand you?
5. In what way do you help your parents?
6. How old are your grandparents?
7. How do you get along with your family?
8. Which of the parents do you want to be like?

Грамматика:
Present Simple
Спряжение глагола to work (работать) в Present Simple Tense (Present Indefinite Tense)
(действие совершается обычно)
I work I do not work
He works He does not work
She works She does not work
It works It does not work
We work We do not work
You work You do not work
They work They do not work
Do I work? Yes, I do No, I don’t
Does
Does
Does he work? Yes, he does
she work? Yes, she does
it work? Yes, it does No, he doesn’t
No, she doesn’t
No, it doesn’t
Do we work? Yes, we do No, we don’t
Do you work? Yes, you do
Do they work? Yes, they do No, you don’t
No, they don’t

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения

Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла¬голы в Present Simple.
(USUALLY) 1. My sister (to get) up at eight o’clock. 2. She (to be) a school-girl. She (to go) to school in the afternoon. 3. Jane (to be) fond of sports. She (to do) her morning exercises every day. 4. For breakfast she (to have) two eggs, a sandwich and a cup of tea. 5. After breakfast she (to go) to school. 6. It (to take) him two hours to do his homework. 7. She (to speak) French well. 8, My working day (to begin) at seven o’clock. I (to get) up, (to switch) on the radio and (to do) my morning exercises. It (to take) me fifteen minutes, At half past seven we (to have) breakfast. My fa¬ther and I (to leave) home at eight o’clock. He (to take) a bus to his factory. My mother (to be) a doctor, she (to leave) home at nine o’clock. In the evening we (to gather) in the living-room. We (to watch) TV and (to talk).
Составьте и выучите рассказ о своей семье (12-15 предл.).

Тема 1.3 My Flat and My Room

We live in a new 16-storeyed block of flats. It’s situated in a very picturesque place. There’s a big supermarket on the ground floor and it’s very convenient to do everyday shopping.
Our flat is on the fifth floor. It’s very comfortable and well-planned. We have all modern conveniences, such as central heating, electricity, gas, cold and hot running water, and telephone. There are three rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom, and a hall in our flat. There’s also a balcony and we can enjoy a lovely view of the river.
The largest room in our flat is the living room and we use it as a dining I room also. In the middle of the room there is a big table and six chairs round it. Opposite the window there is a wall unit with lots of books, a TV-set, and a video cassette recorder. There are two comfortable armchairs and a small coffee table in the right-hand corner. There is also a sofa and an electric fire in our living room. We like the living room best of all, so in the evenings we gather there to have tea, watch TV, talk, and rest.
My room is the smallest room in our flat, but it is very cosy and light. There is a bed, a wardrobe, a desk, an armchair, and several bookshelves here. There is a thick carpet on the floor. The walls in my room are light brown and there are some big posters on them. I like my room very much, but from time to time I change it round. I quite often move the bed and change the posters on the wall.
Our kitchen is large and light. It is very well-equipped.We have got a refrigerator, a freezer, a microwave oven, a coffeemaker, and a toaster. We haven’t got a dishwasher yet, because it is very expensive. But I’m sure w shall buy it in the nearest future.

Vocabulary
16-storeyed — 16-этажный
block of flats — многоквартирный дом
picturesque [‘pikt∫∂resk] — живописный c
convenient [k∂n’vinj∂nt] — удобный, подходящий
well-planned — хорошо спланированный
modern conveniences — современные удобства
central heating — центральное отопление
running water — водопроводная вода
view of — вид на
wall unit — стенка
cosy — уютный
wardrobe [‘wo:dr∂ub] — платяной шкаф
poster — плакат
to change round — менять местами (мебель и т. п.)
well-equipped — хорошо оборудованный
microwave oven — микроволновая печь
dishwasher — посудомоечная машина

Questions
1. Do you live in a house or in a block of flats?
2. Which floor is your flat on?
3. Is your flat well-planned? Is it comfortable?
4. How many rooms are there in your flat?
5. Have you got a dining room (a sitting room, a study)?
6. Where do you usually have your meals?
7. Is there much furniture in your flat? Do you change it round from time to time?
H. What is there in your room?
9. Are there any pictures on the walls of your flat?
10. What colour are the walls in your room?
11. What is your kitchen like?
12. How often do you redecorate the rooms?

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения:

Составьте описание своей квартиры (дома) с использованием изученных грамматических конструкций.

Грамматика: Конструкция There is/are
There isn’t/aren’t. Предлоги места.
Конструкция There is/are служит для выражения наличия (отсутствия) какого-либо предмета в определенном месте или в определенное время. Перевод такого предложения нужно начинать с обстоятельства места (т.е. с конца предложения), а если его нет, то со сказуемого. Выбор формы глагола to be зависит от числа существительного, следующего сразу за ним:
There is a chair and two armchairs in the room. There are two armchairs in the room.
Вставьте глагол to be в нужной форме:
1. There … a telegram on the table. 2. …there any telegrams from Moscow? Yes, there … some. 3. …there … a flight for Moscow tomorrow? 4. There … much snow last winter. 5. There … a lot of stars and planets in space. 6. … there … a lift in your future house? Yes, there … 7. Some years ago there … many old houses in our street. 8. … there any lectures yesterday? No, there … 9. … there a lamp over the table? Yes, there … 10. … there any interesting stories in this book?
Грамматика: Предлоги в английском языке.
Предлоги места: above, after, against, among, around, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, by, close to, in front of, in, inside, near, next to, on, opposite, outside, over, underneath, within.
Предлоги направления: across, along, down, from, into, off, onto, out of, past, round, through, to, towards, under, up.
Предлоги времени: about, after, all, almost, at, before, by, during, for, from, in, on, throughout, untill.
Переведите предложения с примерами употребления предлогов.
1. John’s house is next to Jane’s house. 2. The sun is above the clouds. 3. The sofa is against the wall. 4. The bank is beside the cinema. 5. It’s dangerous to run across the road. 6. She walked along the street. 7. The car is in front of the road. 8. Our house is by the river. 9. Eva sat opposite Tom at the table. 10. The child ran towards his father. 11. She went up the stairs.

Тема 1.4 My Working Day

I want to say that all weekdays except weekends look very much the same.
On weekdays the alarm clock wakes me up at about 7 o’clock and my working day begins. I’m not an early riser that’s why it’s very difficult for me to get out of bed, especially in winter. I switch on my tape-recorder and do my morning exercises. Then I go to the bathroom, take a warm shower and clean my teeth. After that I go to my bedroom to get dressed.
At a quarter past seven I am ready to have my breakfast. As a rule, I have a quick light breakfast which consists of a cup of coffee or tea, a boiled egg, and a cheese or a sausage sandwich. After breakfast I take my bag and leave for school.
As my school is not far from my house, it takes me 10 minutes to get there. I usually walk there.
Six or seven lessons a day is the ordinary timetable. The classes at school are over at about three o’clock. Twice a week I stay at school later to play tennis or I am busy with the English language club.
When I come home I have lunch, after lunch I have a rest. While resting, I listen to the music or look through the newspapers and magazines. Then I start doing my homework. It takes me about five hours to cope with my homework properly. Sometimes I help my mother about the house and do our shopping, go to the library and have private lessons in English in order to improve it.
After dinner I usually relax for some time and then go on with my homework.
As a rule, I go to bed at about 11 o’clock or even later.

Vocabulary
an early [‘з:li] riser [‘raiz∂] — «ранняя пташка»
especially [is’pe∫∂li] — особенно, в особенности, главным образом
to consist of — состоять из
timetable — расписание
to соре [кэир] with — справиться, выполнить
to relax — расслабиться, отдохнуть to go on — продолжать

Questions
1. Do you get up early? Is it easy for you to get up early?
2. Do you wake up yourself or does an alarm clock wake you up?
3. Do you do morning exercises? Do you do your morning exercises to music?
4. Which do you prefer: a hot or a cold shower in the morning?
5. How long does it take you to get dressed?
6. What time do you have breakfast?
7. What do you usually have for breakfast?
8. How long does it take you to get to school?
9. What do you do after classes?
10. How do you spend your evenings?
11. What time do you usually go to bed?

Present Continuous Tense

Спряжение глагола to work (работать) в Present Continuous Tense
(Present Progressive Tense)
(действие в процессе, совершается в тот момент, когда о нем говорят)
I am working
Не is working
She is working
It is working
I am not working
Не is not working
She is not working
It is not working
We are working
You are working
They are working We are not working
You are not working
They are not working
Am I Yes, I am No, I am not
working?

Is he Yes, he is No, he isn’t
working?
Is she Yes, she is No, she isn’t
working?
Is it Yes, it is No, it isn’t
working?

Are we Yes, we are No, we aren’t
working?
Are you Yes, you are No, you aren’t
working?
Are they Yes, they are No, they aren’t
working?

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения

Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла¬голы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.
I (to read) now. He (to sleep) now. We (to drink) tea now. They (to go) to school now. I (not to sleep) now. She (not to drink) coffee now. I (to read) every day. He (to sleep) every night. We (to drink) tea every morning. They (to go) to school eve¬ry morning. I (not to sleep) in the day¬time. She (not to drink) cof¬fee after lunch. We (not to watch) TV now. They (not to eat) now. My mother (not to work) now. You (to work ) now? He (to play) now? They (to eat) now? Your sister (to rest) now? What you (to do) now? What you (to read) now? What they (to eat) now? What your brother (to drink) now? We (not to watch) TV in the morning. They (not to eat) at the lesson. My mother (not to work) at an office. You (to work) every day? He (to play) in the after¬noon? They (to eat) at school? Your sister (to rest) af¬ter school? What you (to do) every morning? What you (to read) after dinner? What they (to eat) at breakfast? What your brother (to drink) in the evening?

Тема 1.5 My Day off

When a school-girl I always envied those students who went to school five but not six days a week, as we did. So you may guess, I had the only day off — Sunday. On Sunday, I didn’t have to hurry anywhere, that’s why, I got up at nine or ten o’clock. I wasn’t an early riser. I did my bed, washed myself and went to the kitchen. In the kitchen the table had already been laid and I always had something tasty on Sunday: fried potatoes, meat salad or my favourite apple-pies. After breakfast, if the weather was sunny, I usually didn’t stay indoors, I went to see my friends. We often played volleyball or basket-ball in the yard and in winter if there was much snow out-of-doors we went skating and skiing in the woods. But sometimes the day happened to be rainy and gloomy. I preferred to be in watching TV listening to music, reading books, speaking over the phone or just lying on the sofa idling away the time. Some of my classmates could watch all TV-programmes from morning till night, but I think it’s rather boring, and I always felt sorry for those TV-addicts. It’s much more interesting to play a game of chess with your grandfather, or help your mother about the house, or argue with your father about the latest events at home and abroad.
In the evening, when all the family were together, we had some tea with a cake or biscuits, we listened to my younger sister playing the piano, sometimes we sang folk songs. Every Sunday, when I went to bed, I was thinking that the day had flashed past and the next week would bring new problems and their solution.

Vocabulary:

to envy — завидовать
to guess — догадываться
I didn’t have to hurry — мне не нужно было торопиться
an early riser — человек, поднимающийся рано
to wash oneself — умываться
to lay the table — накрывать на стол
tasty — вкусный
favourite- любимый
pie — пирог
to go skating and skiing — кататься на коньках и: лыжах
to happen — случаться
gloomy — мрачный
to speak over the phone — разговаривать по телефону
boring — утомительный, скучный
to feel sorry for smb. — жалеть кого-нибудь
to feel — чувствовать
TV-addicts — «телеманы»; люди, проводящие много времени перед телевизором
to play a game of chess — сыграть партию в шахматы
to argue — спорить
we listened to my younger sister playing the piano (Complex Object) — мы слушали, как моя младшая сестра играет на пианино

Questions:

1. What day was your day off?
2. When did you get up on Sunday?
3. Were you an early riser?
4. What did you have for breakfast on Sunday?
5. What did you do if the weather was sunny?
6. Did you like to stay indoors when the day was rainy and gloomy?
7. Do you think to watch TV from morning till night is rather boring?
8. What did you do in the evening?

Грамматика: Past Simple

Спряжение глагола to work (работать)
в Past Simple Tense
(Past Indefinite Tense)
правильные глаголы
(действие совершалось в прошлом )
I worked I did not work
Не worked He did not work
She worked She did not work
It worked It did not work
We worked We did not work
You worked You did not work
They worked They did not work
Did I Yes, I did No, I didn’t
work?
Did he Yes, he did No, he didn’t
work?
Did she Yes, she did No, she didn’t

work?
Did it Yes, it did No, it didn’t
work?
Did we Yes, we did No, we didn’t
work?
Did you Yes, you did No, you didn’t
work?
Did they work? Yes, they did No, they didn’t

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения

Перепишите следующий текст в прошедшем времени.
Boris wakes up when it is already quite light. He looks at his watch. It is a quarter to seven. Quick! Boris jumps out of bed and runs to the bath-room. He has just time to take a cold shower and I drink a glass of tea with bread and butter. He is in a hurry to catch the eight o’clock train. At the railway station he meets three other boys from his group. They all have small backpacks and fishing-rods. In less than an hour they get off the train at a small station near a wood. They walk very quickly and soon find themselves on the shore of a large lake. The boys spend the whole day there fishing, boating and swimming. They return home late at night, tired but happy.
Напишите сочинение о том, как вы проводите свое свободное время, используя Past Simple.

Спряжение глагола to work (работать) в Future Simple Tense
(Future Indefinite Tense)
(действие будет совершаться в будущем)
I shall work I shall not work
Не will work He will not work
She will work She will not work
It will work It will not work
We shall work We shall not work
You will work You will not work
They will work They will not work
Shall I work? Yes, I shall No, I shan’t
Will he work? Yes, he will No, he won’t
Will she work? Yes, she will No, she won’t
Will it work? Yes, it will No, it won’t
Shall we work? Yes, we shall No, we shan’t
Will you work? Will they work? Yes, you will Yes, they will No, you won’t No, they won’t

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаго¬лы в Present Continuous, Present Simple или в Future Simple.
1. I (to play) chess tomorrow. 2. I (not to play) chess tomorrow. 3. You (to play) chess tomorrow? 4. He (to play) chess every day. 5. He (not to play) chess every day. 6. He (to play) chess every day? 7. They (to play) chess now. 8. They (not to play) chess now. 9. They (to play) chess now? 10. Nick (to go) to the park now. 11. Nick (to go) to school every day. 12. Nick (to go) to school tomorrow. 13. You (to come) to my place next Sunday? 14. You (to read) this book next week? 15. You (to read) books every day? 16. You (to read) a book now? 17. I (not to see) him tomorrow. 18. What you (to do) tomor¬row? 19. What your friend (to do) tomorrow? 20. Where you (to go) next summer? 21. Where you (to go) every morning? 22. Where you (to go) now? 23. Look! Mary (to dance). 24. She (to dance) every day. 25. She (to dance) tomorrow?

Тема 1.6 Shopping

Some people like shopping, others don’t but they all have to go shopping at least once a week. Our family usually does the shopping on Saturdays or Sundays. We have a lot of supermarkets near our block of flats, but we prefer to go to the nearest «hypermarket» which sells a rich variety of items. There you can buy food, clothes, shoes, kitchen utensils, electrical goods, TV sets, computers, books, cassettes, CDs and many other things which are cheaper than in smaller shops. Besides, it has a lot of free parking space so we can park our car without any problems.
If we are tired of shopping, we can go upstairs and have a rest at McDonalds or go to the cinema which is situated in the same building. So in my opinion it’s very comfortable and amusing to do the shopping in the «hypermarket». It’s my favourite shop.
Some of my friends hate shopping. They find it boring to spend time in shops choosing the right thing. I see it differently. I enjoy shopping and I like to choose things. Most of all I like trying clothes on. We usually buy clothes in the clothes market. There is a wide choice of trendy clothes and they are cheaper than in shops.
I think I’m practical and I can spend money wisely. My Mum always gives me a free hand in choosing my clothes. She may advise and I often follow her advice. But she never says «No!». If I need some expensive clothes or shoes, we go shopping together, but I can buy such things as CDs, books, T-shirts and jewellery by myself. I also buy some food like bread or dairy products which don’t cost much.
What I find most difficult is buying a present. When I choose a thing for myself, I’m sure I’ll like it. But tastes differ. And I’m always nervous about a present I’ve bought. I like to buy books or CDs as presents because all my friends enjoy reading and listening to music.

Vocabulary
variety — ассортимент, разнообразие
item — изделие, отдельное наименование товара
kitchen utensils — кухонная посуда
cheap — дешевый
upstairs — наверх, на второй этаж
boring — скучный
tо try clothes on — примерять одежду
trendy — модный, стильный wisely — с умом
to follow the advice — следовать совету
expensive — дорогой
jewellery — ювелирные изделия
by myself — самостоятельно
dairy products — молочные продукты
to cost — стоить

Questions
1. How often do you go shopping?
2. Do you like to go shopping? Why or why not?
3. What do you like to shop for?
4. Which things do you hate to shop for?
5. What kinds of shops do you like most of all? Why?
6. If you had a lot of money, how would you spend it?
7. If you had to buy fewer things, what would you stop buying?
8. What is your favourite shop? Describe it. What does it sell?

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Расскажите о вашем последнем походе в магазин (10 – 12 предл.)
Грамматика: The Present Perfect.
Present Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have в настоящем времени и третьей формы смыслового глагола.
I have done We have done
You have done They have done
He, she, it has done
Раскройте скобки, поставьте глагол в Present Perfect.
1. Our son (to learn) how to read.
2. Doctors (to cure) many deadly diseases.
3. Scientists (to split) the atom.
4. You (to grow) since the last time I saw you.
5. English (to become) one of the most popular courses at the university.
6. My English really (to improve) since I took private lessons.
7. I think I ( to see) that movie before.
8. He never (to travel) by train.
9. Joan (to learn) two foreign languages.
10. I think I (to meet) him once before.
11. People (to travel) to the moon.
12. Bill not (to arrive) yet.
13. The train (not to stop).
14. She (to be) in England for six months.

Тема 1.7 My Family`s Meals

My family isn’t large. It consists of four members. But each member of our family has his own tastes and interests. For example, my brother is fond of sports. So early in the morning he goes jogging. That’s why he has nothing to eat before it, because it would be bad for him to eat before exercises. But when he comes back, he has a shower and is more than ready for breakfast. He always needs a cup of coffee to really wake him up. His breakfast usually consists of a bowl of cereal with milk and sugar. This he follows by toasts and juice. My father eats the same as my brother.
My mother has a lighter breakfast of just youghurt and a grapefruit. As for me, a cup of tea is enough for breakfast. And my mother sometimes scolds me for it, because it’s important to have a really good breakfast. We don’t have our main meal at lunchtime. My father takes sandwiches with him to work. To be healthy, he also eats fruit. My mother is able to be more varied in her lunches, because she is a housewife. It means that she can prepare what she likes. Her favourite dish is roast meat. As she likes to bake, there is always something tasty at home.
Our evening meal is usually eaten at 7 o’clock. The main course is often meat with vegetables. Sometimes we eat pizza or pasta with delicious sauce. We try to eat our main meal together. In our busy lives it is the one time of day when we sit down and have a good talk.

Vocabulary:
jogging — бег трусцой
cereal — овсянка
to scold — ругать
roast meat — жареное мясо

Questions:
1. What does your family have for breakfast?
2. Do you have your main meal together?
3. When do you have your main meal?
4. What do you have for supper?

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Расскажите о том, что вы обычно едите (10 предл.)
Грамматика: Some, any, no.
Заполните пропуски местоимениями some, any, no или none.
1. Do … foreigners work in your company? Yes, there are …
2. She hasn’t … clothes to wear to the party. No problem, I can give her …
3. Mary, there is … sugar in the sugar bowl . We had better get …
4. Are there … good movies this weekend? No, there are …
5. I want to take a shower; is there … hot water? I’m sorry, there is … hot water.
6. There are … buses today and I can’t go shopping.
7. There is … caviare in the can. I love it. Would you like …?
8. Please don’t offer her … chips. She doesn’t want … .
9. Can I have … milk in my tea?
10. There is … ink in my pen.
11. Is there … snow in the street?
12. My mother likes … music.
13. Are there … chess players here?
14. There are … diagrams in the new book.

Грамматика: Модальные глаголы.
Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Краткая форма
can cannot can’t
could could not couldn’t
must must not mustn’t
may may not —
При употреблении модальных глаголов следует помнить некоторые особенности:
— в Present Simple к модальным глаголам не добавляется окончание –s в 3-м лице ед.ч.
— инфинитив употребляется без частицы to.
— вопросительная и отрицательная формы образуются без помощи глагола do.
— модальные глаголы не изменяются по лицам и числам.

Заполните пропуски глаголами can, may, must по смыслу:
1. David … do the work. He is competent enough. 2. You … take the last copy if nobody needs it. 3. … I ask you to look after the child? 4. … you tell us of the final diagnosis? 5. You … never tell what … come to her mind. 6. A fool … ask more questions than a wise man … answer. 7. … you read? 8. You may take these books. 9. They … run quickly. 10. They … go there tomorrow. 11. … I go to the cinema? 12. We … meet at 7 o’clock.

Тема 1.8 Seasons and Months

A year is the average time it takes the Earth to go once round the Sun. There are months or 52 weeks or 365 days in a year. Every four years there is a leap year. It has 366 days. The names of the months are: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December. The days of the week are: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday. There are 7 days in a week, 24 hours in a day, 60 minutes in an hour and 60 seconds in a minute. There are four seasons in year — spring, summer, autumn and winter. The Sun rises in the east in the morning and sets in the west in the evening. We tell the time by means of watches and clocks.
In the times of Julius Caesar the first month of the year was March, which is now the third month. Now the first month of the year is January. It is very cold in January. The second month is February. It has twenty-eight days. Every leap year February adds on a twenty-ninth day. The third month — March is the first month of Spring. In spring the days grow longer and the weather becomes warmer. Spring like any other season has three months. June, July and August are the summer months of which July and August are the hottest ones. In summer I often go to see my friends who live in the country. When my vacation is over, I return to my native town.
In autumn the days grow shorter. The weather is bad. It often rains. December is the twelfth and last month of the year. At the same time it is the first month of winter. There is usually much snow in winter. It’s windy and frosty. But children can enjoy going skating, skiing, tobogganing, throwing snowballs and making a showman.

Vocabulary:
leap year — високосный год

Questions:
1. How much does it take for the Earth to go once round. the Sun?
2. How many months are there in a year?
3. Where does the Sun rise?
4. Which month was the first in the times of Julius Caesar?
5. How many days does February have?

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения

Расскажите о вашем любимом времени года.

Грамматика: Конструкция to be going to.
Данная конструкция является альтернативой будущему времени. Она выражает запланированное действие в будущем. Конструкция to be going to употребляется в случае, если говорящий уверен в том, что действие произойдет.
I am going to go to the theatre. – Я собираюсь в театр.
They are going to have dinner at 7:30 p.m. – Они будут обедать в 7:30.
Составьте предложения по образцу.
I’m going to walk in the park.
1. (to see a show)________________.
2. (to make a connection)__________.
3. (to listen to music)_____________.
4. (to go to the bank)_____________.
5. (to live in London)____________.
6. (to understand a conversation)____.

Тема 1.9 Holidays
James: Have the Easter eggs all been hidden?
Mary: Almost. There are a couple left over. I couldn’t find good hiding spots for them.
James: Psychology experts say that you should place small toys in the eggs, not just sweets.
Mary: Well, the jelly beans and chocolate bunnies had already been bought when you read that.
James: True. We wouldn’t want all those bonbons to go to waste.
Mary: Has Lucy been woken?
James: She was woken by the thunder last night but then fell asleep fast.
Mary: There’s our little girl! Good morning, sweetheart. I noticed that your Easter basket has already been found.
Lucy: I found it under the stairs! Are we going to church today?
Mary: Yes, we are. There is still a lot to do. The waffles must be made and eaten, the eggs must be boiled and dyed and the dog could be bathed. He’s coming with us afterwards.
James: How will we be preparing Easter dinner?
Mary: I’ve bought some ham and have made a potato salad. Otherwise it will be a potluck affair. Where do you want to sit in church?
James: In one of the middle pews. I like to sit underneath the fan. It keeps me cool.
Vocabulary:
Easter – Пасха
Easter basket – пасхальная корзина
to hide (hid – hidden) – прятать
jelly beans – «желе-бобы» (конфеты)
bonbons – леденцы, конфеты
waffles — вафли
to dye – красить (в другой цвет)
potluck – чем богаты, тем и рады (разг.)
Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Расскажите о вашем любимом празднике.

Раздел 2

Тема 2.1 Russia
The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one-seventh of the earth’s surface. It covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. It is total area is about 17 million square kilometres. The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the south Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Byelorussia and Ukraine. It also has a sea-border with the USA.
There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east.
There are two great plains in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. There are several mountain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and others. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.
There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe’s biggest river, the Volga, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers — the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena — flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into Pacific Ocean.
Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world’s deepest lake (1,600 meters) is a Lake Baikal.
It is much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there is much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is so clear that if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom.
Russia has one-sixth of the world’s forests. They are concentrated in the European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East.
On the vast territory of the country there are various types of climate, from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is temperate and continental.
Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources.
Russia is a parliamentary republic. The Head of State is the President. The legislative powers are exercised by the Duma. The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is its largest political, scientific, cultural and industrial centre. It is one of the oldest Russian cities.
But in spite of the problems Russia is facing at present, there are a lot of opportunities for this country to become one of the leading countries in the world.

Vocabulary
to occupy [‘okjupai] — занимать
to border — граничить
variety [v∂’rai∂ti] — многообразие, разнообразие
plain — равнина
highlands — горная местность
mountain chain — горная цепь
bottom — дно
temperate — умеренный
coal — (каменный) уголь
iron ore [‘ai∂no:] — железная руда
copper — медь
legislative [‘ledзjisд∂tiv] — законодательный
in spite of — несмотря на
opportunity — благоприятная возможность

Questions:
1. What is the largest country in the world?
2. What is geographical position of the Russian Federation?
3. What plains, mountain chains, lakes and rivers are there on the territory of the country?
4. What is Europe’s biggest river?
5. Where are forests concentrated?
6. What types of climate are there on the territory of the country?
7. What natural resources is Russia rich in?
8. What is Russia from the political point of view?

Грамматика: СТЕПЕНИ СРАВНЕНИЯ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫХ

Односложные и двусложные прилагательные
Положительная Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень
small smaller the smallest
large larger the largest
big bigger the biggest
happy happier the happiest

Многосложные прилагательные
Положительная степень Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень
interesting тоге interesting the most interesting
beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful

Запомните особые случаи образования степеней сравнения
Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень
elder older the eldest the oldest
farther the farthest
better the best
worse the worst

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Раскройте скобки, употребляя тре¬бующуюся форму прилагательного.
1. This man is (tall) than that one. 2. Asia is (large) than Australia. 3. The Volga is (short) than the Mississippi. 4. Which building is the (high) in Moscow? 5. Mary is a (good) student than Lucy.6, The Alps are (high) than the Urals. 7. This gar¬den is the (beautiful) in our town. 8. She speaks Italian (good) than English. 9. Is the word «newspa¬per» (long) than the word «book»? 10. The Thames is (short) than the Volga. 11. The Arctic Ocean is (cold) than the Indian Ocean. 12. Chinese is (diffi¬cult) than English. 13. Spanish is (easy) than Ger¬man. 14. She is not so (busy) as I am. 15. It is as (cold) today as it was yesterday. 16. She is not so (fond) of sports as my brother is. 17. Today the weather is (cold) than it was yesterday. 18. This book is (interesting) of all I have read this year. 19. January is the (cold) month of the year. 20. My sister speaks English (bad) than I do. 21. Which is the (hot) month of the year? 22. Which is the (beau¬tiful) place in this part of the country? 23. This nice-looking girl is the (good) student in our group.

Тема 2.2 Volgograd
Volgograd is a well-known hero city. It was founded as a fortress on the left-bank of the Volga in 1589 and was called Tsaritsin. Later on the fortress was destroyed and a new city was built on the right bank of the Volga. In 1925 it was renamed Stalingrad and since 1961 – Volgograd.
In 1941 the creative work of the Stalingradians was interrupted by the attack of the fascist invaders. It was here on the banks of the Volga, that there was fought the greatest battle in the history of mankind, which ended in a complete rout of the 3 hundred thousand strong Nazi army. When the enemy was beaten away from the walls of Stalingrad, the city lay in a heap of smoking ruins. It was called “the city without addresses”. As soon as the battle was over, the people began to restore the city.
One of the most famous sights of the city is the Destroyed Mill with black holes instead of windows and with half ruined walls. It’a monument to the defence of the city. The Volgogradians are proud of the city’s Central Embankment, which is connected with the Square of Fallen Fighters by the Alley of Heroes. The Square of Fallen Fighters is surrounded by such sights as the New Experimental Theatre, hotels “Volgograd” and “Intourist”, the Central Post-office, the department store where Paulus was captured and the Medical Academy. On the Square the Eternal Flame burns in memory of those who died in the fateful days of the Civil War. The Square of Fallen Fighters is crossed by the short, green and cosy Mira Street.
But the main sight in our city is the Mamaev Hill. The most fierce battle took place here, because it’s highest point of the city and it was convenient to control the most part of th city from there including the river. The main monument of the memorial complex is the statue of the Motherland.
Also there is a very interesting Panorama Museum which reproduces one day of the battle. The person feels to be inside the battle, because the pictures and the figures surround him.
Volgograd is one of the largest centres of industry in Russia. Many factories and plants have been built here after the 2nd World War, The Tractor Plant and the Red October Plant are the greatest. There are a lot of higher schools , 4 theatres, many cinemas, Palaces of Culture and other cultural institutions in Volgograd.
And it was in Stalingrad that the idea of twin-cities arose. The first twinned cities were Stalingrad and Coventry in Great Britain. Our city is the symbol of heroic past and happy future and it calls for peace.
Vocabulary:
a fortress – крепость
to destroy -разрушать
to rename -переименовать
to interrupt – прерывать
fascist invaders – фашистские захватчики
battle – битва
mankind – человечество
Nazi army – нацистская армия
enemy – враг
smoking ruins -дымящиеся руины
to restore -заново отстраивать
the Destroyed Mill -Разрушенная мельница
Central Embankment – Центральная набережная
the Square of Fallen Fighters -площадь Павших борцов
the Alley of Heroes – аллея Героев
the Eternal Flame – Вечный огонь
the Mamaev Hill -Мамаев Курган
twinned cities – города — побратимы

Questions:
1. When was Volgograd founded?
2. When was Volgograd renamed?
3. What can you tell about the greatest battle of mankind?
4. How was Volgograd called when the enemy was beaten away?
5. What is one of the most famous sights in Volgograd?
6. What are the Volgogradians proud of?
7. What burns on the Square of Fallen Fighters?
8. What is the Square of Fallen Fighters crossed by?
9. What is the main sight in Volgograd?
10. What is the main monument of the memorial complex?
11. Why is Volgograd one of the largest centres of industry in Russia?
12. Name the first twinned cities.

Грамматика: The PASSIVE VOICE.
The PASSIVE VOICE
1 to be + III форма, глагола
Спряжение глагола to take ( брать, отводить) во временах группы
Simple в Passive Voice
Present Simple Passive

I am taken

He is taken

I am not taken

He is not taken

She is not taken

It is not taken

We are not taken

You are not taken

They are not taken

Am I taken?

Is he taken?

Is she taken?

Is it taken?

Are we taken?

Are you taken?

Are they taken?

She is taken

It is taken

We are taken

You are taken

They are taken

Past
I was taken
He was taken
She was taken
It was taken
We were taken
You were taken
They were taken
Simple Passive
I was not taken
He was not taken
She was not taken
It was not taken
We were not taken
You were not taken
They were not taken

Was I taken?
Was he taken?
Was she taken?
Was it taken?
Were we taken?
Were you taken?
Were they taken?

Future Simple Passive
I shall not be taken
He will not be taken
She will not be taken
It will not be taken
We shall not be taken
You will not be taken
They will not be taken Shall I be taken?
Will he be taken?
Will she be taken?
Will it be taken?
Shall we be taken?
Will you be taken?
Will they be taken?

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Расскажите о городе-герое Волгограде.

Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла¬голы в Present, Past или Future Simple Passive.
1. Bread (to eat) every day. 2. The letter (to receive) yesterday. 3. Nick (to send) to Moscow next week. 4. I (to ask) at the lesson yesterday. 5. I (to give) a very interesting book at the library last Friday. 6. Many houses (to build) in our town every year. 7. This work (to do) tomorrow. 8. This text (to translate) at the last lesson. 9. These trees (to plant) last autumn. 10. Many interesting games always (to play) at our PT lessons. 11. This bone (to give) to my dog tomorrow. 12. We (to invite) to a concert last Saturday. 13. My question (to an¬swer) yesterday. 14. Hockey (to play) in winter. 15. Mushrooms (to gather) in autumn. 16. Many houses (to burn) during the Great Fire of London. 17. His new book (to finish) next year. 18. Flowers (to sell) in shops and in the streets. 19. St. Peters¬burg (to found) in 1703.

Тема 2.3 Moscow

The capital city of the Russian Federation is Moscow. It is one of the largest cities in the world. More than 83,4 million people live in Moscow. Moscow is the cultural, communications, government, industrial, scientific, and transportation centre of Russia. It lies in western Russia, in the European part of the country. The Moscow River, for which the city was named, flows through the city. Moscow was founded during 12th century. Moscow emerged as the most powerful Russian city in the late 1400’s. The princes of Moscow played a leading role in uniting various Russian lands and in conquering non-Russian peoples and territories. Moscow became the capital of the Russian Empire and was the home of Russia’s czars until 1712, when the capital was moved to St. Petersburg. Moscow again became the Russian capital in 1918, after the Bolsheviks (later called Communists) took control of the country. In 1922, Russia and three other republics united to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Moscow was chosen as the Soviet capital The Communists lost power in the Soviet Union in August 1991. In December, the Soviet Union was dissolved. Russia and other former Soviet republics became independent countries. Most of the republics, including Russia, formed Commonwealth of Independent States. Moscow remained the capital of Russia. The city of Minsk, in Belarus, was named headquarters of the commonwealth. Moscow is built in the shape of a wheel. This shape can be traced to the city’s early history, when rings of fortifications were built to protect it from attack. Today, wide boulevards extend from the city’s centre, forming the spokes of the wheel. They cross circular boulevards, which make up the inner and outer rims of the wheel. A major highway circles Moscow. Past the highway lies the Green Belt, a ring of forests and parks covering about 1,800 square kilometres.
The oldest and busiest sections of Moscow lie near the Kremlin, a huge walled fortress at the city’s historic centre. Just to the north and east of the Kremlin is the main business, commercial, and administrative district. Encircling this area and the Kremlin are Moscow’s main shopping streets and many cultural buildings. Most of the city’s new residential and industrial districts lie in the outermost rings At the city’s heart on the banks of the River Moscow lies the Kremlin, a walled fortress housing all the government buildings. Nearby St. Basil’s Cathedral was built in the 16th century to celebrate a military victory; it is now a museum.

Vocabulary
to found [faund] — начинать строительство, закладывать (фундамент, город) основывать, учреждать; создавать
to emerge [i’mз:dз] — появляться; перен. вставать, возникать
to conquer [‘koηk∂] — завоевывать, покорять; порабощать
to dissolve [di’zolv] — прекращать деятельность, распускать (партию, парламент, аннулировать, расторгать, разрушать
headquarters [,hed’kwo:tez] — штаб-квартира главное управление, центр; центральный орган
wheel [wi:l] — колесо
to trace — прослеживать(ся); восходить к определенному источнику или периоду в прошлом (to, back to)
to protect [pr∂’tekt] — защищать (from — от, against — против); охранять, ограждать; предохранять
a spoke — спица (колеса)
a rim — что-л., представляющее собой цилиндрическую поверхность; обод, (наружная часть колеса)
huge [hju:dз] — большой, гигантский, громадный, огромный
outermost [‘aut∂m∂ust] — самый дальний от середины, от центра, крайний
to expand [iks’pænd] — расширять(ся); увеличивать(ся) в объеме, в размерах

Questions
1. What is the capital city of the Russian Federation?
2. Where is Moscow situated?
3. When was Moscow founded?
4. How many times did it become the capital?
5. In what shape is Moscow built?
6. What is the Kremlin?
7. What is there at the city s heart?

Грамматика: Словообразование.
В английском языке существуют следующие способы образования новых слов: словосложение, словопроизводство и конверсия.
Словосложение — это соединение двух слов в одно с образованием нового слова. Примеры сложных существительных: schoolchildren, postman, newspaper.
Словопроизводство — это образование нового слова с помощью суффиксов и префиксов.
Конверсия — переход слов из одной части речи в другую без изменения формы слова и произношения: water – вода, to water — поливать; limit — предел, to limit — ограничивать и т.д.
Образуйте новые слова с помощью суффиксов и префиксов, переведите их.
to teach – teacher
to write, to weld, to produce, to discuss, to include, to move, to develop, to replace, to build, to meet, happy, ill, dark, to sail, to connect, to educate, to create, friend, leader, fellow, weak, cold, bright, free.

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Расскажите о Москве и ее достопримечательностях.

Тема 2.4 Great Britain

The full name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and a great number of small islands. Their total area is over 314 000 sq. km. The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. Northern Ireland occupies one third of the island of Ireland. It borders on the Irish Republic in the south. The island of Great Britain consists of three main parts: England (the southern and middle part of the island), Wales (a mountainous peninsula in the West) and Scotland (the northern part of the island).
There are no high mountains in Great Britain. In the north the Cheviots separate England from Scotland, the Pennines stretch down North England along its middle, the Cambrian mountains occupy the greater part of Wales and the Highlands of Scotland are the tallest of the British mountains. There is very little flat country except in the region known as East Anglia. Most of the rivers flow into the North Sea. The Thames is the deepest and the longest of the British rivers. Some of the British greatest ports are situated in the estuaries of the Thames, Mersey, Trent and Bristol Avon. Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources. It has some deposits of coal and iron ore and vast deposits of oil and gas that were discovered in the North Sea.
The warm currents of the Atlantic Ocean influence the climate of Great Britain. Winters are not severely cold and. summers are rarely hot. The population of the United Kingdom is over 58 million people. The main nationalities are: English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish. In Great Britain there are a lot of immigrants from former British Asian and African colonies. Great Britain is a highly industrialized country. New industries have been developed in the last three decades. The main industrial centres are London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Glasgow and Bristol. The capital of the country is London. The United Kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy.

Vocabulary:

isle — остров
island — остров
to separate — разделять
European — европейский
the English Channel — Ла-Манш
to be washed by — омываться
to border on — граничить с…
to consist of — состоять из…
mountainous peninsula — гористый полуостров
to stretch — простираться
estuary — устье реки
deposits — залежи
iron ore — железная руда
to discover — обнаруживать
current — течение
severely- чрезвычайно
decade — десятилетие
monarchy — монархия

Questions:

1. Where is the United Kingdom situated?
2. What islands do the British Isles consist of?
3. What ocean and seas are the British Isles washed by?
4. How many parts does the Island of Great Britain consist of and what are they called?
5. What country does Northern Ireland border on?
6. Are there any high mountains in Great Britain?
7. What sea do most of the rivers flow into?
8. What mineral resources is Great Britain rich in?
9. What is the climate like in Great Britain?
10. What is the population of Great Britain?
11. What city is the capital of the U. K.?
12. What kind of state is Great Britain?

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения

Опишите географическое положение, население и языки Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии (варианты выполнения – устный рассказ или презентация).

Грамматика: Неличные формы глаголов.
Грамматические конструкции с инфинитивом.
Формы инфинитива
Active Passive
Indefinite (Simple) to write to be written
Continuous to be writing —
Perfect to have written to have been written
Perfect Continuous to have been writing —

I. Раскройте скобки.
1. He made me (do) it all over again.
2. Her father made her (learn) the lessons.
3. If you want us (make) the work quickly you should let us (start) at once.
4. Would you like me (read) now?
5. They won’t let us (leave) the classroom till our control work has been checked.
6. He wouldn’t let the children (play) in his study.
7. Please let me (know) the results of your exam as soon as possible.
8. The teacher advised us (use) dictionaries.
9. I want her (learn) English.
10. I saw him (go out) of the house.
11. Her father doesn’t allow her (go) to the cinema alone.
12. We don’t want you (tell) anything.

II. Переведите на русский язык и выделите инфинитив.
1. To live is to work and to study. 2. He wanted to study English. 3. The lesson to be read at home is not difficult. 4. Our task is to study. 5. I want to become a good specialist.

Тема 2.5 London

London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural centre. It’s one of the largest cities in the world. Its population is more than million people. London is situated on the river Thames. The city is very old and beautiful. It was founded more than two thousand years ago. Traditionally London is divided into several parts: the City, the West End, the East End and Westminster. The City is the oldest part of London, its financial and business centre. The heart of the City is the Stock Exchange. Westminster is the most important part of the capital. It’s the administrative centre. The Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Government, are there. It’s a very beautiful building with two towers and a very big clock called Big Ben. Big Ben is really the bell which strikes every quarter of an hour. Opposite the Houses of Parliament is Westminster Abbey. It’s a very beautiful church built over 900 years ago. The tombs of many great statesmen, scientists and writers are there.
To the west of Westminster is West End. Here we find most of the big shops, hotels, museums, art galleries, theatres and concert halls. Picadilly Circus is the heart of London’s West End. In the West End there are wide streets with beautiful houses and many parks, gardens and squares. To the east of Westminster is the East End, an industrial district of the capital. There are no parks or gardens in the East End and you can’t see many fine houses there. Most of the plants and factories are situated there. London has many places of interest. One of them is Buckingham Palace. It’s the residence of the Queen. The English are proud of Trafalgar Square, which was named so in memory of the victory at the battle. There in 1805 the English fleet defeated the fleet of France and Spain. The last place of interest I should like to mention is the British Museum, the biggest museum in London. The museum is famous for its library -one of the richest in the world. All London’s long-past history is told by its streets. There are many streets in London which are known all over the» world. Among them Oxford Street, Downing Street and a lot of others can be mentioned. And tourists are usually attracted not only by the places of interest but by the streets too. In conclusion I should say if you are lucky enough to find yourself in London some day you will have a lot to see and enjoy there.

Vocabulary:
tower — башня
tomb — могила
battle — битва
in conclusion — в заключение

Questions:
1. When was London founded?
2. Into which parts is London divided?
3. What is the heart of the City?
4. Do you know any places of interest in London?
5. All London’s history is told by its streets, isn’t it?

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Расскажите о Лондоне.
Грамматика: Грамматические конструкции с герундием.
Формы герундия
Active Passive
Indefinite (Simple) writing being written
Perfect having written having been written

Переведите на русский язык, обра¬щая внимание на герундий.
1. Have you finished writing? 2. Taking a cold shower in the morning is very useful. 3. I like skiing, but my sister prefers skating. 4. She likes sitting in the sun. 5. It looks like raining. 6. My watch wants repairing. 7. Thank you for coming. 8. I had no hope of getting an answer before the end of the month. 9. I had the pleasure of dancing with her the whole evening. 10. Let’s go boating. 11. He talked without stopping. 12. Some people can walk all day without feeling tired. 13. Living in little stuffy rooms means breathing poisonous air. 14. Iron is found by digging in the earth. 15. There are two ways of getting sugar: one from beet and the other from sugar-cane. 16. Jane Eyre was fond of reading. 17. Miss Trotwood was in the habit of asking Mr. Dick his opinion.

Тема 2.6 Famous English people

Conan Doyle

Many years ago a young doctor began to write stories about a man who was a detective. Readers liked his stories because they were very interesting and the doctor decided to become a writer. The doctor was Conan Doyle and he wrote about Sherlock Holmes. Conan Doyle wrote his first story about Sherlock Holmes in 1887. In this story the detective meets his friend Dr. Watson. Holmes and Watson lived at 221 В Baker Street in London.
Many discussions take place about where 221 В was. There is no house there now. But a large company has its office near the place. This company answers twenty or so letters which still come every week to Sherlock Holmes, 221 В Baker Street. Most come from the United States and many people ask if Mr. Holmes can help them with some problem. The company answers saying that, «Mr. Sherlock Holmes is no longer working as a detective».
There is a pub in London called Sherlock Holmes. One of the rooms in the pub is Sherlock Holmes* room. It has many things the room in Conan Doyle’s stories had — Holmes’ hat, some letters written to Sherlock Holmes, chairs and tables like those described in the stories. Besides, there are some pictures of Holmes and Conan Doyle, of actors who played Holmes and Watson in films, on television and radio. In 1961 lovers of Sherlock Holmes formed the Sherlock Holmes Society. They meet three or four times a year to talk about Sherlock Holmes. The members of the Society know the stories about Sherlock» Holmes very well, and they discuss, these stories at their meetings.

Vocabulary:
discussions — обсуждения
to take place — происходить

Questions:

1. Why did readers like Conan Doyle’s stories?
2. When did Conan Doyle first write about Sherlock Holmes?
3. What did lovers of Sherlock Holmes form?
4. What do the lovers of Sherlock Holmes do at their meetings?

Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens was born in 1812. He lived in the south of England when he was a little boy. His father worked in an office. He was a very clever man, but he was very poor. Charles had many brothers and sisters, but he did not often play with them. His father had many books and Charles liked to read them. He learned to read very early. When Charles was 10 years old, his family went to London. There his father got into debt (as he had little money) and then into debtor’s prison. So little Charles began to work when he was ten. That was the beginning of Charles’ hard life.
He worked at a small factory in London, pasting labels on blacking bottles. He had to work in a dirty room with no windows. He did not like his work, but he had to work at the factory for two years. Then he went to school for three years, but he did not learn much at school. He learned much at home, from his father and from other clever people. Later he worked as a reporter to the Parliament and became a writer of short stories. In 1837 he published his first novel «The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club». And the young reporter became a famous writer. Then he published novel after novel — «Oliver Twist», «Dombey and Son», «David Copperfield» and many other good books.
His books are very interesting, they tell us about the hard life of the poor people in England of that time. When we read his books, we sometimes laugh, but we often want to cry. Charles Dickens died in 1870. He is one of the greatest novelists in the English literature. Dickens lived more than a hundred years ago, but people in the whole world like to read his books today, because in his books he showed a real world and people of Victorian England.

Vocabulary:
to get into debt — залезть в долги
to cry — плакать
poor — бедный
prison — тюрьма

Questions:

1. Where did Charles Dickens live?
2. Where did his father work?
3. When did his family go to London?
4. Why did Charles have to work?
5. What novel did Charles Dickens publish in 1837?
6. What do his books tell us about?
7. What did Charles Dickens show in his books?

Причастие. Причастие I, образованное при помощи окончания –ing, имеет активную и пассивную формы:
Несовершенный вид Совершенный вид
Active asking having asked
Passive being asked having been asked
Причастие II всегда пассивно. Образуется оно прибавлением суффикса –ed к основе правильного глагола или путем чередования звуков в корне неправильного глагола. The book translated from English is very interesting.
В предложении Participle I может выполнять функции определения и обстоятельства. В функции определения причастие I может переводиться причастием, оканчивающимся на –ущий, -ющий, -ащий, -ящий: the sitting girl – сидящая девушка; а также переводится причастным оборотом или определительным придаточным предложением: The girl sitting in the room is my sister. – Девушка, сидящая в комнате, — моя сестра.
В функции обстоятельства Participle I переводится деепричастием: Reading your translation I found some mistakes. – Читая ваш перевод, я нашел несколько ошибок; обстоятельственным придаточным предложением: When reading your translation I found some mistakes. – Когда я читал ваш перевод, я нашел несколько ошибок; существительным с предлогом «при»: While reading your translation I found some mistakes. – При чтении вашего перевода я нашел несколько ошибок.
Определите функцию Participle I и переведите на русский язык.
1. I like the girl standing at the window. 2. Standing at the window I could see playing children. 3. Studying at the technical school he was interested in English. 4. People living one hundred years ago knew nothing of radio. 5. When studying at the institute he was interested in biology. 6. Take the book from a girl sitting on the sofa. 7. She is a loving mother.
Переведите предложения.
1. There is a house built in our street. 2. The materials used were not of good quality. 3. The vegetables bought were fresh. 4. The letters sent yesterday by e-mail were not received. 5. I live in the house built two years ago. 6. I must do the written translation of this text. 7. I like the girl asked at the English lesson. 8. The translation written by this girl is good.

Тема 2.7 Summer and Winter Sports

People all over the world are very fond of sports and games. That is one of the things in which people of every nationality and class are united. The most popular outdoor winter sports are shooting, hunting, hockey and, in the countries where the weather is frosty and there is much snow — skating, skiing and tobogganing. It’s so nice to go to the skating-rink on a frosty sunny day. Some people prefer to be out of town in such weather and to sledge or to ski in the woods. Many people greatly enjoy figure-skating and ski-jumping. Summer affords excellent opportunities for swimming, boating, yachting, cycling, gliding and many other sports. Among outdoor games football takes the first place in public interests; this game is played in all the countries of the world. The other games that have firmly established themselves in favour in different countries are cricket, volley-ball, basketball, and so on. Badminton is also very popular both with young and old.
All the year round many people indulge in boxing, wrestling, gymnastics and track and field events. Scores of young girls and women go in for callisthenics. Over the last few years aerobics has become popular with young girls and women. Aerobics helps them to be slim, healthy and strong. The interest for it greatly increased thanks to Jane Fonda, a prominent American actress, the founder of this kind of sport. This woman may serve as an impressive example of inexhaustible health, cheerfulness and beauty. Being a great enthusiast of aerobics she has been trying to initiate many women all over the world into this sport.
Among indoor games which one can go in all the year round are billiards, table tennis, draughts, chess, of course. The results of chess tournamets are studied and discussed by enthusiasts in different countries. So we have all grounds to say that sport is one of the things that makes people kin.

Vocabulary:
to be fond of smth. — любить, нравиться
to unite — объединять
outdoor winter sports — зимние виды спорта на открытом воздухе
shooting — стрельба
hunting — охота
tobogganing — санный спорт
to sledge — кататься на санках
yachting — парусный спорт
gliding — планерный спорт
to establish oneself in favour — стать в почете
lawn-tennis — теннис
track and field events — легкая атлетика
scores of young girls and women — множество девушек и женщин
calisthenics — ритмическая гимнастика
indoor games — игры в закрытом помещении
impressive example — замечательный пример
inexhaustible — неисчерпаемый
cheerfulness — бодрость
enthusiast — энтузиаст
to initiate — приобщить кого-то к чему-то
tournament, — турнир, спортивное соревнование

Questions:
1. What are people all over the world fond of?
2. What unites people of every nationality?
3. Why do people prefer to be out of town on a frosty sunny day?
4. What are the most popular outdoor winter sports?
5. What opportunities for sports does summer afford?
6. What game takes the first place in public interest?
7. When do many people indulge in boxing, wrestling, athletics, gymnastics?
8. Who goes in for calisthenics?
9. Why is chess the great international game?

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Расскажите о Вашем любимом виде спорта (12-15 предл.)

Тема 2.8 Travelling

Travel Agent: What can I do for you today?
Mr. Miller: I would like to book plane tickets for the whole family to visit our friends in London.
Travel Agent: Have you ever visited London before?
Mr. Miller: No, we haven’t. This is our first trip.
Agent: We have several travel packages that we can offer you.
Mr. Miller: Actually, we are interested in your most basic package.
Agent: All right. Have you spoken to your family about excursions and day trips that you would like to take?
Mr. Miller: Yes, I have. But we want to wait and see what our hosts have planned.
Agent: That’s understandable. Have you already booked accommodations?
Mr. Miller: No, we haven’t. That isn’t necessary since we are staying with friends.
Agent: All right. Then all we have to worry about is the airfare. How many are joining you?
Mr. Miller: My wife, my two sons and my daughter.
Agent: Are the children under 18?
Mr. Miller: Yes, all of them are under 18.
Agent: We have a reduced fare for under 18. Would you like business or economy class?
Mr. Miller: Economy is fine. We would like to leave on the 19th and return on the 31st.
Agent: There are tickets available for that flight. I have you in two different rows, two window seats and an aisle seat, but you are basically all sitting together.
Mr. Miller: Great. How many pieces of luggage we bring on board?
Agent: You may take two to check-in and one each on board. Last but not least, you are flying out of Frankfurt and into Heathrow. It’s the largest airport in the world and has good connections into the city. Any questions?
Mr. Miller: Just one. May I pay with a credit card?
Agent: Of course.
Vocabulary:
to book – бронировать
accommodation – жилье
a reduced fare for under 18 – система скидок для детей до 18
business or economy class – бизнесс – или экономкласс
flight – рейс, полет
an aisle seat – место у прохода
to check-in -сдать в багаж
last but not least – последнее, но не менее важное
a credit card – кредитная карточка
Questions:
1. How would you like to travel by plane, by car, by train or by bus?
2. Do you usually book tickets in advance?
3. Where do you like to rest? At home, at the seaside or abroad?
4. How much luggage do you take with?
5. Do you like to travel alone, with parents or friends?
6. Have you ever been abroad?

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Расскажите о Вашей последней поездке (12-15 предл.)
Грамматика: Предлоги в английском языке.
Предлоги места: above, after, against, among, around, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, by, close to, in front of, in, inside, near, next to, on, opposite, outside, over, underneath, within.
Предлоги направления: across, along, down, from, into, off, onto, out of, past, round, through, to, towards, under, up.
Предлоги времени: about, after, all, almost, at, before, by, during, for, from, in, on, throughout, untill.
Переведите предложения с примерами употребления предлогов.
1. John’s house is next to Jane’s house. 2. The sun is above the clouds. 3. The sofa is against the wall. 4. The bank is beside the cinema. 5. It’s dangerous to run across the road. 6. She walked along the street. 7. The car is in front of the road. 8. Our house is by the river. 9. Eva sat opposite Tom at the table. 10. The child ran towards his father. 11. She went up the stairs.

Раздел 3. Тема 3.1 Science and technology

Marie Curie was one of the most accomplished scientists in history. Together with her husband. Pierre, she discovered radium, an element widely used for treating cancer, and studied uranium and other radioactive substances. Pierre and Marie’s amicable collaboration later helped to unlock the secrets of the atom.
Marie was born in 1867 in Warsaw, Poland, where her father was a professor of physics. At the early age, she displayed a brilliant mind and a blithe personality. Her great exuberance for learning prompted her to continue with her studies after high school. She became disgruntled, however, when she learned that the university in Warsaw was closed to women. Determined to receive a higher education, she left Poland and in 1891 entered the Sorbonne, a French university, where she earned her master’s degree and doctorate in physics.
Marie was fortunate to have studied at the Sorbonne with some of the greatest scientists of her day, one of whom was Pierre Curie. Pierre and Marie were married in 1895 and spent many productive years working together in the physics laboratory. A short time after they discovered radium, Pierre was killed by a horse – drawn wagon in 1906. Marie was stunned by this horrible misfortune and endured joy that they shared in scientific research. The fact that she had two young daughters to raise by herself greatly increased her distress.
Marie was the first woman to be given a professorship at the world – famous university. In 1911 she received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for isolating radium.
Vocabulary:
accomplished – превосходный
radioactive substances – радиоактивные вещества
amicable collaboration – дружеское сотрудничество
a brilliant mind – выдающиеся умственные способности
blithe – веселый, жизнерадостный
exuberance – изобилие, избыток
prompt – побуждать, толкать; внушать
disgruntled – раздраженный
doctorate in physics – докторская степень по физике
Questions:
1. Who discovered radium? What is it widely used for?
2. What kind of girl was Marie?
3. Why did she leave Poland?
4. What kind of education did she receive?
5. Who did Mary study with?
6. How was Pierre killed? When did it happen?
7. How did Marie feel after her husband’s death?
8. What increased her distress?
9. When did she receive the Nobel Prize?

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Расскажите о Марии Кюри (12 предл.)
Грамматика: Косвенная речь.
При переводе из прямой речи в косвенную необходимо знать следующие правила:
1. После глаголов ask, request и некоторых других глаголов, обозначающих просьбу, перед придаточным предложением ставятся союзы whether или if (в значении «ли»): He asked if everyone was ready. — Он спросил, все ли готовы.
2. Глагол tell (told) употребляется вместо глагола say (said): He told me that…, но: He said that…
3. Если прямая речь содержит приказание или просьбу, то значение «велел, приказал» передается сочетанием глаголов tell, order, ask, demand с инфинитивом.
4. При переводе предложений в повелительном наклонении (команд, просьб или приказаний) в косвенную речь изменяются лицо, время глагола и слова и выражения, обозначающие время: Father: “Do your homework.” Father told me to do my homework.
5. Если предложение начинается с глагола в настоящем времени, то время не изменяется: Susan says: “I work in an office.” Susan tells me that she works in an office.
6. Если предложение начинается с глагола в прошедшем времени, то вступает в действие правило согласования времен и время меняется на одно из прошедших: Susan said: “I work in an office.” Susan told me that she worked in an office.
Как изменяются времена:
Present Simple – Past Simple
Past Simple – Past Perfect
Future Simple – Future-in-the-Past
Present Perfect — Past Perfect
Present Continuous — Past Continuous
Происходит замена вспомогательных глаголов:
Am/are/is – was/were
Was/were – had been
Has been — had been
Will – would
Shall – should
Если предложение содержит выражения, связанные со временем, то они также меняются.
В прямой речи: В косвенной речи:
this that
now then
yesterday the day before
today/this day that day
these those
(a week) ago (a week) before
last the previous
next the following
tomorrow the next day/the following day
Задания для самостоятельного выполнения

Передайте следующие предложения в косвенной речи.
1. «I shall buy some new stamps for you if you give me this one,» said Mike to Kate. 2. «Will you bring your sister to the party with you, Boris?» asked Mary. 3. «Please don’t touch me,» he said to me. 4. My father said: «I think I shall not go to the beach with you today because I am very busy.» 5. «I am very thirsty. Please give me some lemon¬ade, Ann,» said Tom. 6. «Don’t lie to me Tom,» said Aunt Polly. «I am tired of your lies.» 7. «Are you fond of going to the theatre?» asked my friend. «Have you seen any plays by Shakespeare?» 8. Nellie asked me: «Did you see ‘Hamlet’ last night?» 9. I asked Nellie: «Shall we go to the theatre together?» 10. «Does Mike like Shakespeare?» asked Nellie. «Will he go to the theatre with us?»

2. 1. Не said: «I am sure she will come in time.» 2. She said: «I shall be able to read English news-papers without a dictionary next year.» 3. They said: «We shall not go to school on Sunday.» 4. Mr. Dickson said: «I shall have to pay a lot of money for the car.» 5. Peter said to me: I’ll be waiting for you at the station.» 6. Mary said: «I’ll be back soon.» 7. She said to me: «What are you going to do when you come home?» 8. She said: «I hope I’ll soon speak English well.» 9. He said: «I am sure it will rain tomorrow.» 10. They said: «We shall go to the river tomorrow if it is hot.» 11. She said: «I am busy today and I shall be bus¬ier tomorrow.» 12. Jane said: «I shall come to school early tomorrow.»

Тема 3.2 Culture and Art
William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare , the greatest and most famous of English writers, and probably the greatest playwright, was born in Stratford-on-Avon on April 23, 1564. Little is known about his childhood, but we know that he was educated at the local Grammar School.
At the age of eighteen he married Anne Hathaway of Shottery and lived in Stratford-on-Avon until he was about twenty-one. Then he went to London. We do not know why he left Stratford-on-Avon. There is a story that Shakespeare’s first job in London was holding rich men’s horses at the theatre door. But nobody can be sure that this story is true.
Later, Shakespeare became an actor and a member of one of the chief acting companies. Soon he began to write plays for this company and in a few years became a well-known author. Many of his plays were staged at a London theatre called The Globe. The theatres of those days were a lot different. No scenery was used; there were no actresses at that time either. All women’s parts were played by boys or men dressed in women’s clothes.
Shakespeare’s experience as an actor helped him greatly in the writing of his plays. Shakespeare wrote 37 plays. Among them there are deep tragedies, such as Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, Macbeth, light comedies, such as All’s Well that Ends Well, Twelfth Night, historical dramas, such as Henry IV, Richard III.
Most of Shakespeare’s plays were not published during his life. So some of them may have been lost in the fire when the Globe burned down in 1613.
Shakespeare spent the last years of his life at Stratford, where he died in 1616. He was buried in the church of Stratford-on-Avon. In London there is a monument to the memory of the great playwright in the Poets Corner in Westminster Abbey. Shakespeare’s plays, translated into many languages are still performed on the stages of the best theatres of the world.
Vocabulary:
playwright – драматург
acting company – актерская труппа
stage -сцена
to stage a play – ставить (пьесу)
scenery – декорации сцены
part -роль
to perform – исполнять (пьесу, роль)
Questions:
1. In what century was William Shakespeare born?
2. What education did Shakespeare get?
3. Where many of his plays were staged?
4. How many plays did Shakespeare write?
5. Name some of Shakespeare’s comedies and tragedies.
Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Расскажите о В. Шекспире (12 предл.)
Грамматика: Повторение времен пассивного залога.
Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present, Past или Future Simple Passive.
1. Bread (to eat) every day. 2. The letter (to receive) yesterday. 3. Nick (to send) to Moscow next week. 4. I (to ask) at the lesson yesterday. 5. I (to give) a very interesting book at the library last Friday. 6. Not many houses (to build) in our town every year. 7. This work (to do) tomorrow. 8. This text (to translate) at the last lesson. 9. These trees (to plant) last autumn. 10. My question (to answer) two days ago. 11. Hockey (to play) in winter. 12. Mushrooms (to gather) in autumn. 13. Flowers (to sell) in the streets and in shops.

Тема 3.3 Экологические проблемы
Environmental problems have become exceptionally acute in the country. For a long time too little attention was paid to the environment.
In effort to meet production goals the ministries stinted on measures to protect the environment from industrial pollution. As a result, about half of the water sources in the country are polluted with industrial or communal waste. In more than a hundred towns and cities with populations of some fifty million, the concentration of harmful substances in the air is over ten times the admissible level.
For dozens of years the national economy focused on large projects, including giant projects in what was called the transformation of nature. Blunders were committed that caused environmental disasters.
Of the acute problems causing public concern the environment safety of nuclear and hydrolic power engineering is beginning to assume paramount importance. Public anxiety has grown particularly after the Chernobyl disaster. Another reason is the adverse effect of flatland hydropower stations on the environment.
The list of serious environmental problems could be continued. In recent years people have become more sensitive towards the environment. Still more public organizations and unofficial environmentalist movements have been established with every passing year. In 1987 a “Green Peace” public commission has been set up. Its main goal is to combine the people’s efforts for peace with the huge and ever mounting movement for nature conservation. Another area of its work is to set up and strengthen cooperation among environmentalists from many similar organizations abroad.
“Travels for Peace and Nature” is the name of another public movement that appeared in Russia some years ago. It concentrates its efforts on theory and practical work. The movement launches all kinds of environmental actions and informs the public of the ways, means and results of this work. Russia is cooperating in the field of environmental protection with the United States of America, Canada, Norway, Finland and other countries.
Vocabulary:
environmental problems — экологические проблемы
exceptionally acute – исключительно острый
in effort to meet production goals – преследуя производственные цели
stint – урезывать
industrial pollution – промышленное загрязнение
industrial or communal waste – промышленные и бытовые отходы
harmful substances – вредные вещества
admissible level – допустимый уровень
focused – нацеленный
transformation of nature – преобразование природы
blunder – грубая ошибка
commit – совершать (преступления и т.д.)
cause – вызывать
environmental disaster – экологическая катастрофа
causing public concern – вызывающий озабоченность общественности
nuclear and hydrolic power engineering – сооружение атомных и гидроэлектростанций
to assume paramount importance – приобретать первостепенное значение
Public anxiety – озабоченность общественности
adverse effect – неблагоприятное воздействие
flatland hydropower stations – гидроэлектростанции, построенные на равнине
unofficial environmentalist movement – неофициальное движение в защиту окружающей среды
“Green Peace” public commission – общественная комиссия «Грин Пис» (зеленый мир)
ever mounting – все возрастающий
nature conservation – сохранение природы
“Travels for Peace and Nature” – «Туризм в защиту мира и природы»
Questions:
1. Why have environmental problems have become exceptionally acute in the country?
2. Why is it necessary to take measures to protect the environment from industrial pollution?
3. Why is the admissible level of the concentration of harmful substances in many towns and cities over ten times?
4. Why have people become more sensitive towards the environment in recent years?
5. Why is Russia cooperating in the field of environmental protection with other countries?
Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Расскажите об экологических проблемах (12 предл.)
Грамматика: Согласование времен.
В английском сложноподчиненном предложении с придаточным дополнительным (вопрос что? кто? чего?) соблюдаются правила согласования времен в главном и придаточном предложениях.
1. Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в настоящем или будущем времени, то глагол-сказуемое придаточного дополнительного предложения может стоять в любой временной форме, требуемой смыслом, например: He says you are right.
2. Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в прошедшем времени, то и глагол придаточного предложения должен стоять в одном из прошедших времен, в том числе в будущем с точки зрения прошедшего (Future-in-the-Past): He said he would not go to school tomorrow. – Он сказал, что не пойдет в школу завтра.
При этом для обозначения действия, одновременного с действием, выраженным сказуемым главного предложения, употребляются Past Continuous или Past Simple: He told me he was preparing for his exam. – Он сказал мне, что готовится к экзамену.
Как изменяются времена:
Present Simple – Past Simple
Past Simple – Past Perfect
Future Simple – Future-in-the-Past
Present Perfect — Past Perfect
Present Continuous — Past Continuous

Перепишите следующие предложения в прошедшем времени, пользуясь правилом согласования времен.
1. Mike says he is sure Ann and Kate will be excellent guides. 2. He says he has just come back from the Caucasus. 3. He says he feels better now. 4. He says his wife and he spent most of their time on the beach. 5. He says he has a good camera. 6. Ann says she has just met Boris in the street. 7. Nick says he is going to the hotel to see friends, who have just arrived in Moscow from the USA. 8. He says they have not been in their beloved city for a long time. 9. They say they will take them to the theatre on Sunday. 10. He says they were friends at school.

Тема 3.4 Mass Media
Randy: Do you watch television?
Charles: I do it for relax and shut off after work, but I try not to sit in front of it for too long.
Randy: Do you turn on more educational or entertaining shows?
Charles: I always turn to the news in the evening, and I like sit-coms but what I really abhor is made-for-TV movies.
Randy: Yes, they are usually awful. I like when actual films are broadcast on television, though.
Charles: But the commercials can become annoying.
Randy: Yes, they are quite a nuisance, aren’t they?
Charles: That’s why I like to watch public television. They are exemplary programs of great caliber.
Randy: I prefer private stations. If you can ignore or mute out the advertisements, they are very watchable.
Charles: I think that watching television is a good opportunity to bring friends together.
Randy: I often watch one series with my friends every week, but with time, it has become the only thing that we have in common!
Charles: It’s exactly the opposite with radio programming these days. A long time ago, radio was the prime means of entertainment among families.
Randy: These are still many government funded radio stations with adequate programs, but I only turn in when I am by myself. It’s as if I have company riding with me.
Charles: Yes, it is quite a solitary activity, isn’t it? I listen to the car radio when I’m driving.
Randy: Public radio has many ploys to get you to listen to it, usually in the form of games and contests.
Charles: What I can’t stand is that the music played is always mainstream. And the disc jockeys put on the same songs over and over again.
Vocabulary:
to shut off – отключиться
sit–com – комедия положений
to broadcast – транслировать
annoying — раздражающий
a commercial – реклама (по телевидению)
exemplary programs – образцовые программы
to have in common – иметь что – то общее
government funded – финансируемый правительством
adequate – соответствующий требованиям, адекватный
a solitary activity – занятие для одиночек
a ploy — уловка
mainstream – основное направление, наиболее популярное
Questions:
1. Do you like to watch TV?
2. What programs do you like to watch?
3. Do you turn on more educational or entertaining shows?
4. What about the radio? Do you often listen to it?
5. What is annoying in TV? How do you think?
6. What can you say about many government funded radio stations?

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Расскажите о Вашей любимой передаче (12-15 предл.)

Грамматика: Неличные формы глаголов.
Грамматические конструкции с инфинитивом.
Формы инфинитива
Active Passive
Indefinite (Simple) to write to be written
Continuous to be writing —
Perfect to have written to have been written
Perfect Continuous to have been writing —

Раскройте скобки.
1. He made me (do) it all over again.
2. Her father made her (learn) the lessons.
3. If you want us (make) the work quickly you should let us (start) at once.
4. Would you like me (read) now?
5. They won’t let us (leave) the classroom till our control work has been checked.
6. He wouldn’t let the children (play) in his study.
7. Please let me (know) the results of your exam as soon as possible.
8. The teacher advised us (use) dictionaries.
9. I want her (learn) English.
10. I saw him (go out) of the house.
11. Her father doesn’t allow her (go) to the cinema alone.
12. We don’t want you (tell) anything.

Формы герундия
Active Passive
Indefinite (Simple) writing being written
Perfect having written having been written

Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные формы герундия.
1. The place is worth visiting. 2. Watching football matches may be exciting enough, but of course it is more exciting playing football. 3. She stopped coming to see us. 4. Can you remember having seen the man before? 5. After being corrected by the teacher, the student’s papers were returned to them. 6. On being told the news she turned pale.

Причастие. Причастие I, образованное при помощи окончания –ing, имеет активную и пассивную формы:
Несовершенный вид Совершенный вид
Active asking having asked
Passive being asked having been asked
Причастие II всегда пассивно. Образуется оно прибавлением суффикса –ed к основе правильного глагола или путем чередования звуков в корне неправильного глагола. The book translated from English is very interesting.
Переведите предложения.
1.There is a house built in our street. 2. The materials used were not of good quality. 3. The vegetables bought were fresh. 4. The letters sent yesterday by e-mail were not received.

Тема 3.5 Topics on profession line
Many thousands of years ago there were no houses such as people live in today. In hot countries people sometimes made their homes in the trees and used leaves to protect themselves from rain or sun. In colder countries they dwelt in caves. Later people left their caves and trees and began to build houses out of different materials such as mud, wood or stones.
Later people found out it that bricks made of mud and dried in the hot sunshine became almost as hard as stones. In ancient Egypt especially, people learned to use these sun-dried mud bricks. Some of their buildings are still standing after several thousands of years.
The ancient Egyptians discovered how to cut stone for building purposes. They erected temples, palaces and huge tombs. The greatest tomb is the stone *pyramid of Khufu1, king of Egypt. The ancient Egyptians often erected their huge constructions to commemorate their kings or pharaohs.
The ancient Greeks also understood the art of building with cut stone, and their buildings were beautiful as well as useful. They often used pillars, partly for supporting the roofs and partly for decoration. Parts of these ancient buildings can still be seen today in Greece. Whereas the ancient Greeks tried to embody the idea of harmony and pure beauty in their buildings, the Roman architecture produces the impression of greatness.
The Romans were great bridge, harbour and road builders. In road works the Romans widely used timber piles. They also erected aqueducts, reservoirs, water tanks, etc. Some of their constructions are used till now. It is known that the manufacture of lime is one of
the boldest industries used by man. Lime is a basic building material used all over the world as today so in the ancient world.
Britain was a province of the Roman Empire. There are many things today in Britain to remind the people of the Romans: towns, roads, wells and the words. By the way, Hadrian, the Roman emperor, was also the one who suggested the absolutely new for that time idea of building the Pantheon with a dome.
In a period of 800 to 900 years the Romans developed concrete to the position of the main structural material in the empire. It is surprising, therefore, that after the fall of the Empire, much of the great knowledge should have disappeared so completely. The knowledge of how to make durable concrete has been lost for centuries.
Buildings combined the Roman arch and the steep peaked roof of Northern Europe. Roman traditions were continued in the architectural form known as Romanesque. London Bridge, finished in 1209, took thirty-three years to build. It consisted of nineteen irregular pointed arches with its piers resting on broad
foundation, which was designed to withstand the Thames. The Romanian period was followed by other periods each of which produced its own type of architecture and building materials.
During the last hundred years many new methods of building have been discovered. One of the most recent discoveries is the usefulness of steel as a building material.
Vocabulary:

art of building — искусство строить
brick [brik] — n кирпич
borrow [‘borou] — v (from) занимать, заимствовать
concrete [‘konkrit] —n бетон,
dome [doum]—n купол
dwell [dwel] — v жить, проживать
embody [im’bodi] — v олицетворять, воплощать
erect fi’rekt] —v возводить, строить
find [faind] — v (out) обнаружить, найти
kiln [kiln]— n обжиговая печь, сушильная печь
pile [pail] — n свая, столб
pillar [pils] — n столб, колонна
remains [ri’ meinz] — pl остатки, руины
tribe [traib]—n племя

Questions:
1. How did people live many thousands years ago?
2. What about brick did people find out later?
3. What did people learn in ancient Egypt?
4. What did the ancient Egyptians discover?
5. What can you tell about the art of building of the ancient Greeks?
6. What did the ancient Greeks often use?
7. What did the ancient Greeks try to embody in their buildings?
8. What can you tell about the Roman architecture?
9. What did they erect?
10. What can you tell about Britain building?
11. What did the Romans develop?
12. What is one of the most recent discoveries?

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Выпишите основные термины по теме (не менее 10) и переведите.

Грамматика: Сложноподчиненное предложение.
Сложноподчиненное предложение состоит из главного и придаточного предложения. Придаточное предложение по смыслу зависит от главного.
Типы придаточных предложений:
1) Придаточные предложения-подлежащие выполняют функцию подлежащего главного предложения, отвечает на вопрос кто? что?
2) Дополнительные придаточные предложения выполняют функцию дополнения в предложении и отвечают на вопрос: что? кого?
3) Определительные придаточные предложения выполняют функцию определения к подлежащему или другим членам главного предложения и отвечают на вопрос: какой? который? чей?
4) Придаточные предложения времени выполняют функцию обстоятельства времени, отвечают на вопрос: когда? как долго? до каких пор?
5) Придаточные предложения причины отвечают на вопрос: почему?
6) Придаточные предложения цели выполняют функцию обстоятельства цели, отвечают на вопрос: зачем? с какой целью? для чего?

Переведите сложноподчиненные предложения на русский язык и определите их тип:
1. As long as you are working here, we’ll have a rest.
2. I’ll have a talk with you after I’ve done my work.
3. They’ll come before the dinner starts.
4. The students had been doing translation since the lesson began.
5. What were you doing when I came in?
6. I gave the books to her after I had read them.
7. The porter dropped the box as he was bringing it in.
8. How they managed to do it was not clear.
9. Whether the students can do this work is the main problem.
10. To be or not to be that is the question.

Раздел 4

Тема 4.1 Industrial practice
There are thousands of vocational and specialized schools in Russia. They train radio assemblers, shop-assistants, nurses, turners, bakers, draftsmen, fitters, computer programmers and so on. Students learn their trade. If students study well they get grants.
I am a student of the college now. I am a full-time student. I study at the fourth course of the Faculty of Professional training. My future speciality is Construction and Exploitation of Buildings.
Las year we had an Industrial practice at the plants and factories of our city. Our enterprise is modern and has many shops. High – productive equipment is installed in the shops. We worked in brigades under leadership of the experienced workers. We applied our knowledge, skill and experience gained at the college. The products of our plant are exported in more than 70 countries of the world. We are proud of it because we also made for the successful fulfillment of the plan. Our masters and mentors explained and showed us each working tool. We tried to do the tasks given by the qualified worker as good as possible. One more session of industrial training will take place in April. In case of successful taking of the examination on practice we will become qualified workers and tutors of industrial training.
Vocabulary:
vocational — профессиональный
grant -стипендия
a full-time student -студент очного отделения
the Faculty of Professional training -отделение профессионального обучения
Construction and Exploitation of Buildings – строительство и эксплуатация зданий
an Industrial practice – производственная практика
enterprise – предприятие
shops – мастерские
high – productive equipment -высокопродуктивное оборудование
to install –устанавливать
under leadership -под руководством
to apply -применять
to gain -получать
to make for -способствовать
fulfillment –выполнение
mentor -наставник
working tool -рабочий инструмент
Questions:
1. How many vocational and specialized schools are there in Russia?
2. What do students get if they study well?
3. Where do you study?
4. What course do you study at?
5. What faculty do you study at?
6. Have you ever had an Industrial practice?
7. Where do you work while your practice?
8. What can you apply in you practice?
9. What can your masters and tutors explain to you?
10. When will you become qualified workers of industrial training?
Задания для самостоятельного выполнения
Составить профессиональный словарь по теме (выписать не менее 10 терминов и перевести).
Грамматика: Сложное дополнение.
Сложное дополнение — это сочетание существительного или местоимения в объектном падеже (напр.: me, him, us, them) с инфинитивом или причастием I. Существует в трех основных вариантах:
1. С инфинитивом без частицы to или с причастием I после глаголов восприятия: to see (saw-seen): I saw him drive the car; to watch: We watched the plane land; to notice: Nobody noticed him go out; to feel: She left somebody touch her hand; to hear: I didn’t hear you come into the room.
2. С инфинитивом без частицы to после глаголов: to let (let-let), to make (made-made): Don’t let them play in the street. Don’t make me laugh.
3. С инфинитивом с частицей to после глаголов: to want, to expect, to believe, to know, to advise, to consider, to order, to allow, to find, I would like:
I want you to help me. I expect you to come in time. I know him to be a good specialist.
Раскройте скобки:
1. He made me (do) it all over again.
2. Her father made her (learn) the lessons.
3. If you want us (make) the work quickly you should let us (start) at once.
4. Would you like me (read) now?
5. They won’t let us (leave) the classroom till our control work has been checked.
6. He wouldn’t let the children (play) in his study.
7. He made us (wait) for two hours.
8. I let him (go) early as he had done his task.
9. I want her (learn) English.
10. I heard her (play) the piano.
11. I saw him (go out) of the house.

Тема 4.2 Business trip
Application for Employment
Name:___________________________
Date of Birth:_____________________
Present Address:___________________
Tel. Number ______________________
Indicate Dates You Attended School____
Elementary, From_________to________
High School, From________to________
College, From____________to________
Other (Specify Type and Dates)________
List below all present and past Employment, beginning with Most Recent
Company
Name From
Mo/Yr To
Mo/Yr Name of Supervisor Reason for leaving Weekly salary Job description
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
May we contact the employers listed above?____________________
Indicate which ones you wish us to contact:_____________________
Remarks:________________________________________________
Vocabulary:
form – бланк, форма, анкета
application form -анкета поступающего на работу, бланк для заявления
first name – имя
maiden name – девичья фамилия
last name= family name= surname – фамилия
date of Birth -дата рождения
present Address -текущий адрес
employment – занятие, работа
to list – составлять список, перечислять
blank space -пробел, пропуск
to fill out – заполнять (анкету)
personal reference – личная рекомендация
weekly salary – недельная заработная плата
experience – опыт работы
occupation -род занятий, профессия
place of birth -место рождения
nationality — национальность
native language – родной язык
permanent address -постоянное место жительства
emergency contact -с кем связаться в непредвиденном случае
How to write a resume
No matter what method of job hunting you use, inevitably somebody will ask you for a resume. Most companies require a resume before seriously considering a job candidate from the outside. Resumes are sometimes also required in order to receive a job transfer within a company.
The purpose of a resume is to help you obtain a job interview, not a job. Very few people are hired without a personal interview.
Effective resumes are straightforward, factual presentations of a person’s experience and accomplishments. They are neither over detailed nor too sketchy. A general rule is that two or three pages in length is best.
One page seems too superficial; a four-page (or longer) resume may irritate an impatient employment official. Some writers suggest that a chronological (the standard-type) resume be used; others argue for an accomplishment resume. A useful resume should include both your experiences and key accomplishments. When sent to a prospective employer, a resume should be professionally reproduced, with particular attention to misspellings, typographical errors, and careful spacing.
To attract attention, some job seekers print resumes on tinted paper, in a menu-like folder, or on unusual-sized paper. If done in a way to attract positive attention to yourself, these approaches have merit.
Vocabulary:
inevitably — неизбежно
to require —требовать
to hire — нанимать
accomplishment — выполнение (достижение)
superficial — поверхностный
to irritate — раздражать
tinted paper — тоновая окрашенная бумага
merit — достоинство
Questions:
1. What is the purpose of a resume?
2. What are effective resumes?
3. What is the length of effective resumes?
4. What should a useful resume include?
5. How should a resume be reproduced?

Задания для самостоятельного выполнения:
Напишите резюме (10 предл.)
Грамматика: Времена группы Perfect Continuous.
Present Perfect Continuous (настоящее совершенное продолженное время) образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be в Present Perfect (have been/has been) и причастия настоящего времени (четвертой формы) смыслового глагола.
I have been living in Moscow all my life. She has been reading since morning.
Present Perfect Continuous обозначает действие, которое началось в прошлом, продолжалось какое-то время и все еще длится. Слова since и for выражают соответсвенно момент, с которого началось действие, и период времени, в течение которого это действие продолжается: since 5 o’clock, since yesterday, for an hour, for a long time, for ages, for a month. It has been raining since morning. (Дождь идет с утра и все еще продолжается). They have been waiting for the train for half an hour. (Они ждут поезд полчаса и все еще ждут его).
Это время переводится на русский язык глаголами несовершенного вида в настоящем времени («идет», «ждут», «думаю» и т.д.).
Специальные вопросы начинаются со слов: How long? Since when…? How long have you been waiting for us? Since when have you been learning English?
Объясните употребление времен в следующих предложениях.
1. I’ve been living next door to Alison for five years but I’ve never spoken to her. 2. Marie has been going out with Steve for a year now, and they are planning to get married. 3. This fund has been helping people for generations. 4. In my eyes you can see all the love that I’ve been feeling. 5. I’ve been waiting for this holiday for so long! 6. Where are my letters? Have you been hiding things from me again? 7. What a smell! What have you been smoking? 8. How long have you been living in this city? 9. How long have you been peeling all those potatoes?
Present Perfect Continuous обозначает действие, которое началось в прошлом, продолжалось какой-то период времени и только что завершилось, и результат этого действия очевиден: Come in! I’ve been looking for you. Это время переводится на русский язык глаголами несовершенного вида в прошедшем времени («искали», «говорили» и т.д.).
Past Perfect Continuous образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be в Past Perfect (had been) причастия настоящего времени (четвертой формы) смыслового глагола. We had been working. I had been cooking.
Past Perfect Continuous выражает действие, которое началось до определенного момента или действия в прошлом и продолжалось вплоть до этого момента. They were tired as they had been walking for a long time already.
Объясните употребление Past Perfect Continuous в следующих предложениях.
1. We were tired as we had been walking for more than hour. It was time to rest a little. 2. The boy had been reading the task in physics for a long time but still he didn’t understand it. 3. My eyes were getting tired. I had been reading for two hours. I decided to make a break. 4. The secretary closed the file which she just had been looking through. 5. They had been driving all night when finally they saw the lights of a big city.

Тема 4.3 My profession
When I think about my future profession, first I’m interested in its usefulness and practicality. There are many professions that are in vogue today, which everyone dreams. For example, economist, lawyer, journalist, advertising manager.
But fashionable profession is not always necessary in a society that is thought to school leavers. Then, for example, it is difficult to find a job, along with hundreds of others like you. So in choosing their profession, I will not look back on fashion and advertising. I want to become a builder.
Why I made this choice? A job builder is a real man’s profession. It is very interesting and requires high skills. It is a responsible and highly paid, because it is very in demand. Skilled construction workers are always needed to build new buildings. Old houses are destroyed with time. Even in order to reconstruct the old building, builders need work: engineers, foremen, skilled workers.
A man, who has been an apprentice for some years in a building trade, is called tradesman or craftsman.
He may be a carpenter-and-joiner, bricklayer, mason, slater and tiler, plumber, electrician, house painter, glazier, floor and wall tiler, plasterer, paper-hanger, steeplejack, hot water fitter and so on.
Bricklayer is a tradesman who builds and repairs brickwork. He renders brickwork, including the insides of manholes. A sewer and tunnel bricklayer is a specialized bricklayer. In some districts of Great Britain, bricklayers also fix wall and flooring tiles and slating and lay plaster and granolithic floors.
Carpenter is a man who erects wood frames, fits joints, fixes wood floors, stairs and window frames, asbestos sheeting and other wallboard. He builds or dismantles wood or metal formwork. The two trades of carpenter and joiner were originally the same.
Joiner is a man, who makes joinery and works mainly at the bench of wood, which has been cut and shaped by the machinists. His work is finer than the carpenter’s, much of it being highly finished and done in a joinery shop which is not exposed to weather.
Mason is a stone worker or stone setter. In Scotland and the USA a bricklayer is usually also a mason. A fixer or a fixer mason or a builder mason is a mason who sets prepared stones in walls.
Plasterer is a tradesman who may be a fibrous plasterer or a plasterer in solid work. The latter lays successive coats of plaster or rendering and fixes fibrous plaster such as mould cornices and wall pattern. He can use a horsed mould, erect lathing for plaster, and apply stucco.
A construction manager or CM represents client’s interest during all phases of the building process design. He is usually paid a negotiated fee for the scope of services rendered.
Working with the architect during design, the CM provides updated costs, which the project evolves. The CM decides who bids the job, picks up the request for invitation to bid, evaluates the bids.
Vocabulary:
an apprentice – ученик, подмастерье
trade – ремесло
a carpenter – плотник
a bricklayer, a mason – каменщик
a tiler – плиточник
a slater and tiler – кровельщик
a plumber – сантехник
a glazier – стекольщик
a plasterer – штукатур
a paper-hanger -обойщик
a fitter -слесарь, монтажник
to render -выполнять
a sewer – канализационная труба
granolithic – сделанный из искусственного гранита
to erect -возводить
fix – устанавливать
a manhole -люк
set – осадка; укладывать
slating – черепица
lathing -сетка под штукатурку
join -соединять
joint – стык
coat -слой
fibrous – волокнистый
horse mould = formwork – опалубка для бетона
stucco -штукатурка
fee -гонорар
bid -предлагать цену; заявка
updated cost -предстоящие расходы
wallboard -стеновая плита; обшивочный лист
Questions:
1. Who is called a tradesman?
2. Who is a bricklayer? What does he usually do?
3. Who is a carpenter? What are his duties?
4. Who is a joiner? What are his duties?
5. Who is a mason? What are his duties?
6. Who is a plasterer? What are his duties?
7. What does a CM usually do?
Задания для самостоятельного выполнения:
Расскажите о своей будущей профессии (12 – 15 предл.)

Грамматика: Условные предложения.
Условные предложения могут быть трех типов:
Тип 1: условие можно выполнить: If you help me, I shall do this work.
Тип 2: условие теоретически можно выполнить: If I knew his address I would write to him.
Тип 3: условие невозможно выполнить: If the weather had been fine yesterday he would have gone to the country.
Сослагательное наклонение выражает возможность, нереальность, предположительность действия.
Предложения нереального условия (тип 2)
Действие относится к настоящему или будущему:
If I knew his address I would write to him. – Если бы я знал его адрес (сейчас), я написал бы ему (сейчас или в ближайшем будущем).
If the weather were fine he would go to the country. – Если бы погода была хорошей, он бы поехал за город. (сейчас)
Предложения нереального условия (тип 3)
If the weather had been fine yesterday he would have gone to the country. – Если бы погода была вчера хорошей, он бы поехал за город. (Но не поехал).
В случае если действие, описываемое сослагательным наклонением, относится к прошедшему времени, в главном предложении используется форма будущего совершенного с точки зрения прошедшего Future Perfect in the Past, а в придаточном — Past Perfect.

Тип Придаточное предложение с if Главное предложение
1 Simple Present Will -future
2 Simple Past Would + Infinitive
3 Past Perfect Would +have+Past Participle

Переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. If I came later I would be late for the lesson. 2. If he had known the time-table he wouldn’t have missed the train. 3. It would be better if you learned to drive a car. 4. I would have sent a letter to you if I had known your address. 5. If I had met you yesterday I would have told you about it. 6. If I were in your place I wouldn’t buy the tickets beforehand. 7. If I had known that you needed help I would have helped you.

КОНТРОЛЬ И ОЦЕНКА РЕЗУЛЬТАТОВ
ОСВОЕНИЯ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ

Текущий контроль

Перечень точек рубежного контроля:
• Промежуточная зимняя сессия (декабрь)
• Промежуточная летняя сессия (май)
• Промежуточная зимняя сессия (декабрь)

Итоговый контроль по дисциплине

Вопросы к дифференцированному зачету:

1. Сделайте устное сообщение по заданной теме.
1. Моя биография.
2. Моя квартира.
3. Мой рабочий день.
4. Мой свободный день.
5. Покупки.
6. Времена года.
7. Еда.
8. Праздники.
9. Волгоград – город герой.
10. Россия. Географическое положение, ландшафт, природные ископаемые.
11. Москва.
12. Великобритания: географическое положение, население, языки.
13. Великобритания: политическая система. Королева и Парламент.
14. Лондон и его история.
15. Достопримечательности Лондона.
16. Выдающиеся люди Великобритании.
17. Спорт.
18. Путешествие, виды транспорта.
19. Наука и техника.
20. Культура и искусство.
21. СМИ в России.
22. Экологические проблемы.
23. Введение в специальность.
24. Производственная практика.
25. Деловая поездка за рубеж.
26. Моя профессия.

2. Переведите со словарем текст по специальности и ответьте на вопросы преподавателя.


ИНФОРМАЦИОННОЕ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ

Основные источники:
1. И.П. Агабекян: Английский язык для ССУзов, учебное пособие; Москва, «Проспект», 2010.
2. И.П. Агабекян: Английский для технических ВУЗов; Ростов-на-Дону, «Феникс», 2009.
3. Ю. Голицынский; Грамматика. Сборник упражнений; Санкт-Петербург, «Каро», 2010.
4. К.Э. Эккерсли Самоучитель английского языка; Москва, ЭКСМО, 2014.

Дополнительные источники:
1. И.П. Агабекян: Английский для обслуживающего персонала; Ростов-на-Дону, «Феникс», 2008.
2. В.В. Войтенок, А.М. Войтенко: Разговорный английский; Москва, «Айрис Пресс», 2007.
3. Г. Габи, Б. Зигрид: Английский язык – практикум по грамматике; Москва, АСТ Астрель, 2006.
4. А.П. Загорская, П.Ф. Петроченко: Письмовник для ведения деловой корреспонденции, Москва, «Московский рабочий», 1992.
5. Е.Е. Израилевич: Деловая корреспонденция и документация на английском языке, Москва, «ЮНВЕС»Ю, 2001.
6. А.А.Ионина, А.С. Саакян Английская грамматика; Москва, «Айрис Пресс», 2005.
7. М.В. Кирсанова Ю.М. Аксенов: Курс делопроизводства; Москва-Новосибирск, «Инфра-М», 2003
8. А.Ю. Кудрявцев: Русско-английский разговорник; Минск, «Современный литератор», 1999.
9. О.Н. Мусихина, О.Г. Гисина, В.Л. Яськова Английский для строителей; Ростов-на-Дону, «Феникс», 2004.

Интернет-ресурсы:
1. www//http: googleartproject.com
2. http://www.langust.ru/links.shtml
3. http://www.bbc.com/news/

Ответить

Ваш email нигде не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля отмечены *

Вы можете использовать HTML теги и атрибуты <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>